Histoplasmosis: Be Safe Around Bird or Bat Poop!

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection that can affect anyone. Learning about histoplasmosis can help you stay healthy and recognize symptoms early if you do get the infection.

Histoplasmosis is caused by Histoplasma, a fungus that lives in the soil, particularly where there’s a large amount of bird or bat poop. The infection ranges from mild to life-threatening. It can be misdiagnosed because its symptoms are similar to those of other illnesses. Here are some important things to know about histoplasmosis.

Common symptoms can lead to delayed diagnosis

Doctor senior man

Symptoms of histoplasmosis include:

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Fatigue (extreme tiredness)
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Chest pain
  • Body aches

These symptoms usually appear between 3 and 17 days after breathing in the fungus. Because the symptoms are similar to those of other diseases, patients can experience delays in getting correctly diagnosed and treated.

Some people can develop severe histoplasmosis. These people include people who have health problems or take medicines that lower the body’s ability to fight germs and sickness (or people with weakened immune systems), and people who are exposed to a large amount of the fungus. A severe infection must be treated with prescription antifungal medicine.

However, most people who breathe in the fungus that causes histoplasmosis do not have symptoms, or only have mild symptoms. Some people never know they’ve had histoplasmosis until a CT scan, X-ray, or other imaging test shows spots on their lungs. These spots can look identical to lung cancer, leading to unnecessary costs and emotional stress associated with finding the right diagnosis.

If you have symptoms and suspect that you might have histoplasmosis, ask your doctor to test you for it.

Histoplasma capsulatum: Areas of Endemic for Histoplasmosis

This map shows the approximate areas (“disease-endemic areas”) in the United States where we know or suspect the fungus Histoplasma lives. Cases of histoplasmosis have also been reported from areas that are not shaded on the map.

How it spreads: from soil to lungs

In the United States, the fungus that causes histoplasmosis mainly lives in soil in the central and eastern states, especially areas around the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. However, it’s also present in other U.S. states, likely in small pockets that offer the right growing conditions. The fungus also lives in parts of Central and South America, Africa, Asia, and Australia. People can get histoplasmosis by breathing in the fungus from the air in these areas. Histoplasmosis does not spread from person to person.

How to stay healthy

It can be difficult to avoid breathing in the fungus that causes histoplasmosis in areas where it’s common in the environment. In those areas, people who have weakened immune systems should consider avoiding activities associated with getting histoplasmosis, such as:

  • Disturbing a large amount of bird or bat poop
  • Cleaning, remodeling, or tearing down old buildings
  • Exploring caves

Read about a histoplasmosis outbreak linked to bat poop in the Dominican Republic.

Large amounts of bird or bat poop should be cleaned up by a professional company that specializes in handling hazardous waste. A small amount of bird or bat poop on a hard surface is much less likely to spread histoplasmosis than a larger amount around soil or plants.

Before starting a job or activity where there’s a possibility of being exposed to the fungus that causes histoplasmosis, consult the document Histoplasmosis: Protecting Workers at Risk pdf icon[PDF – 39 pages].

It’s important to know that people can also get histoplasmosis without being exposed to bird or bat poop.

Awareness is key

Diego Caceres CDC microbiologist

Diego Caceres, a CDC microbiologist, sharing research on diagnosis and testing of histoplasmosis at the Histoplasmosis in the Americas Conference in Manaus, Brazil.

In areas where the fungus that causes histoplasmosis is common, it’s difficult to completely avoid being exposed to it. That’s why knowing about histoplasmosis is one of the most important ways to avoid delays in diagnosis and treatment.

Greater awareness about histoplasmosis is needed in the United States and around the world. In Latin America and the Caribbean, histoplasmosis is one of the most common infections among people living with HIV. There, about 1 in 3 people with HIV who get histoplasmosis die from this condition. Learn more about CDC’s work to prevent deaths due to histoplasmosis by improving diagnosis and increasing access to lifesaving antifungal medications.

Fungal Disease Awareness Week
Fungal Disease Awareness Week

Join CDC in sharing information to increase awareness in your community about fungal diseases during Fungal Disease Awareness Week.

Histoplasmosis
histoplasmosis

General information about histoplasmosis.