Data and Statistics on Fungal Diseases

At a glance

  • Fungal diseases can cause serious illnesses and deaths.
  • Many fungal diseases are never diagnosed or reported to public health.
  • Severe infections can require extensive hospital stays and expensive treatments.
  • Estimates of cost, healthcare visits, and deaths provide an overview of the impact of fungal diseases in the United States.
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Estimated burden of fungal diseases

Estimated financial costs, healthcare visits, infections, and deaths provide an overview of the burden of fungal diseases in the United States.


Direct medical costs are estimated at $6.7 to $7.5 billion yearly. Indirect costs from premature deaths and missed work or school are estimated at $4 billion (Table 1). Total costs are conservatively estimated at $11.5 billion and could be as high as $48 billion.

Number of healthcare visits

More than 75,000 hospitalizations and nearly 9 million outpatient visits occur every year for fungal diseases (Table 1).

Number of infections

About 23,000 cases of invasive candidiasis occurred in 2017. More than 100,000 cases of coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) occurred in 2014.

Number of deaths

An estimated 7,199 deaths from fungal diseases occurred in 2021 (Table 2).

Data estimates

Table 1. Hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and costs associated with fungal diseases in the U.S.*

Fungal disease reporting by state
Hospitalizations (2014) Outpatient visits (2005–2014 average) Direct medical costs (2019) Indirect costs (2019)
Aspergillosis 14,820 ** $1.3B $485M
Blastomycosis 950 ** $24M $49M
Candida infection
Invasive candidiasis 12,770 ** $1.2B $522M
Non-invasive candidiasis 13,990 3,639,037 $2.1B $443M
Coccidioidomycosis 6,670 ** $204M $181M
Cryptococcosis 4,755 ** $265M $269M
Dermatophytosis (ringworm) 690 4,981,444 $845M $339M
Histoplasmosis 4,630 79,993 $222M $110M
Pneumocystis pneumonia 10,590 ** $489M $355M
Mucormycosis 1,140 ** $129M $131M
Other and unspecified fungal diseases 7,355 222,523 $897M $1.2B
Total 75,055 8,993,230 $7.5B $4B

* These numbers are based on administrative coding data and likely underestimate the true burden of disease because of underdiagnosis and undercoding. Numbers of visits and hospitalizations do not equate to totals because some visits had more than one fungal disease listed.** Estimate suppressed because of small numbers.

Table 2. Deaths from fungal infections in the U.S., 2018–2021.*

Table 2. Number of deaths from fungal infections in the United States during 2018–2021
2018 2019 2020 2021
All COVID-19–associated All COVID-19–associated
Aspergillus 795 723 918 170 1,236 498
Candida 1,010 1,171 1,439 281 1,769 495
Coccidioides 253 192 319 33 359 71
Cryptococcus 290 334 341 24 342 49
Histoplasma 146 133 130 6 199 21
Mucorales spp. 151 134 169 17 232 47
Pneumocystis 371 436 381 13 449 48
Other specified pathogens 116 118 131 3 131 9
Unspecified 1,649 1,623 2,135 362 2,538 746
All 4,746 4,833 5,922 901 7,199 1,967

*Data were obtained from the National Vital Statistics System Multiple Cause of Death Database. Data for 2021 are provisional and were last updated February 6, 2022. Death certificates could list more than one fungal ICD-10-CM code; this occurred on <1% of death certificates listing a fungal pathogen.

Fungal deaths were defined as deaths where a fungal infection was listed as a contributing or underlying cause of death. COVID-19–associated deaths were defined as deaths where COVID-19 was listed as a contributing or underlying cause of death.

Data limitations

Estimates presented for costs, illnesses, and deaths are lower than the true numbers for each. Fungal diseases are often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed so these cases do not get included in the data.

Personal and social impact

Numerical estimates for disease burden do not capture the substantial impact that fungal infections can have on quality of life.

These nationwide counts and estimates also do not show how some populations face higher fungal disease burdens than others.

Actions for public health professionals

  • Educate stakeholders to improve fungal disease diagnoses.
  • Monitor the emergence and spread of resistant fungi.
  • Implement strategies to limit the spread of antifungal resistance.
  • Develop new and expand existing fungal disease surveillance systems.
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The number of deaths from fungal infections has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Learn more about COVID-19–associated fungal infections.