Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Project Publications
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Zhou ZH, Cortese MM, Fang JL, Wood R, Hummell DS, Risma KA, Norton AE, KuKuruga M, Kirshner S, Rabin RL, Agarabi C, Staat MA, Halasa N, Ware RE, Stahl A, McMahon M, Browning P, Maniatis P, Bolcen S, Edwards KM, Su JR, Dharmarajan S, Forshee R, Broder KR, Anderson S, Kozlowski S. Evaluation of association of anti-PEG antibodies with anaphylaxis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Vaccine. 2023 Jun 23; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.05.029 Online ahead of print.
Soon after mRNA COVID-19 vaccines became available for use in the United States, cases of anaphylaxis (an-uh-fuh-LAK-sis), or severe whole body allergic reactions, were reported in vaccine safety monitoring systems, raising concerns that rates of this severe allergic reaction were higher with mRNA vaccines than with other vaccines. Learning the cause of anaphylaxis following mRNA vaccination is important because multiple vaccine doses are required to be considered fully vaccinated against COVID-19. The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines contain polyethylene glycol (PEG), which has been associated with allergic reactions in some medical products. In this publication, authors share results of an evaluation to determine if PEG may cause anaphylaxis following mRNA vaccination. The study compared levels of anti-PEG Immunoglobin E (IgE), a type of antibody, in serum samples of patients who had anaphylaxis after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination to those of patients who did not have any allergic reaction after mRNA vaccination. The evaluation found that anti-PEG IgE antibodies were rare in people with anaphylaxis after mRNA vaccination and that low levels of the antibody were found in people who did not have an allergic reaction after mRNA vaccination. The results suggest that PEG allergy is not a common cause of anaphylaxis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.
Cortese MM, Taylor AW, Akinbami LJ, Thames-Allen A, Yousaf AR, Campbell AP, Maloney SA, Harrington TA, Anyalechi EG, Munshi D, Kamidani S, Curtis CR, McCormick DW, Staat MA, Edwards KM, Creech CB, Museru O, Marquez P, Thompson D, Su JR, Schlaudecker EP, Broder KR. Surveillance For Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in US Children Aged 5-11 Years Who Received Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine, November 2021 through March 2022. J Infect Dis. 2023 Feb 23;jiad051. Online ahead of print.
Haq K, Anyalechi EG, Schlaudecker EP, McKay R, Kamidani S, Manos C, Oster ME. Multiple MIS-C Readmissions and Giant Coronary Aneurysm After COVID-19 Illness and Vaccination: A Case Report. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2022 Dec 16; DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003801. Online ahead of print.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) rarely involves delayed giant coronary aneurysms, hospital readmissions, or symptom occurrence after COVID-19 vaccination. In this case report, the authors describe a child with all 3 of these unusual features. The authors discuss his clinical presentation and medical management, review the current literature, and review CDC guidance recommendations regarding further vaccinations. A 5-year-old boy began to show symptoms of MIS-C 55 days after COVID-19 illness and 15 days after receiving the first COVID-19 vaccine dose. This is the only reported case of a patient admitted to the hospital three times for MIS-C complications after COVID-19 vaccination. Whether the child’s MIS-C complications were related to his receiving a COVID-19 vaccine after having COVID-19 illness remains unknown. After consultation with the CDC-funded Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project, the patient’s care team decided against further COVID-19 vaccination until at least three months after normalization of inflammatory markers.
Sokolow AG, Stallings AP, Kercsmar C, Harrington T, Jimenez-Truque N, Zhu Y, Sokolow K, Moody MA, Schlaudecker EP, Walter EB, Allen Staat M, Broder KR, Creech CB. Safety of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children With Asthma. Pediatrics. 2022 Apr 1. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2021-055432.
People ages 5 years and older with asthma should receive the quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) with caution because of concerns for wheezing events. This study, published in April 2022, compared the proportion of children with asthma who experienced asthma-related symptoms after receipt of LAIV4 to the proportion of children with asthma who experienced asthma-related symptoms after receipt of the quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) and found that LAIV4 was not associated with increased exacerbations, asthma-related symptoms, or decrease in expiratory flow rate compared with IIV4 among this age group. During two influenza seasons, 142 children with asthma ages 5–17 years were monitored for asthma symptoms for 42 days after IIV4 or LAIV4 vaccination. During the observation period, 18 (13%) of 142 participants had exacerbated symptoms: 8 (11%) who received the LAIV4 and 10 (15%) who received the IIV4 vaccine.
Yousaf AR, Cortese MM, Taylor AW, Broder KR, Oster ME, Wong JM, Guh AY, McCormick DW, Kamidani S, Schlaudecker EP, Edwards K, Creech CB, Staat MA, Belay ED, Marquez P, Su JR, Salzman MB, Thompson D, Campbell AP, MIS-C Investigation Authorship Group. Reported cases of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children aged 12-20 years in the USA who received a COVID-19 vaccine, December, 2020, through August, 2021: a surveillance investigation. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2022 Feb 23; S2352-4642(22)00028-1. Online ahead of print.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a condition in children where the heart, liver, kidneys, or other organs of the body become inflamed, is a rare but serious complication of COVID-19 disease in people ages less than 21 years. Because this inflammatory illness occurs after COVID-19 infection, scientists wondered if this same type of inflammatory illness might occur after COVID-19 vaccination. In this report, published May 2022, investigators found that reported cases of MIS-C occurring at some point during the surveillance period after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine were rare; they identified 21 cases in people ages 12–20 years during a period when more than 21 million people these ages had received at least one vaccine dose. Most of the people who developed MIS-C also had laboratory evidence showing past or recent COVID-19 infection. Whether COVID-19 vaccination contributed in any way to them developing MIS-C remains unknown. CDC will continue to monitor reports of MIS-C and report findings, particularly in children and adolescents now authorized to receive the COVID-19 vaccine.
See I, Lale A, Marquez P, Streiff MB, Wheeler AP, Tepper NK, Woo EJ, Broder KR, Edwards KM, Gallego R, Geller AI, Jackson KA, Sharma S, Talaat KR, Walter EB, Akpan IJ, Ortel TL, Urrutia VC, Walker S, Yui JC, Shimabukuro TT, Mba-Jonas A, Su JR, Shay DK. Case Series of Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination—United States, December 2020 to August 2021 Ann Intern Med. 2022 Jan 18. Doi: 10.7326/M21-4502 Online ahead of print.
Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that causes blood clots in large blood vessels and low platelets (blood cells that help form clots). To describe surveillance data and reporting rates of all reported TTS cases after COVID-19 vaccination in the United States, researchers reviewed data from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) reported during December 14, 2020, through August 31, 2021, for patients who reported TTS symptoms after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Results showed 57 confirmed TTS cases after receiving a J&J/Janssen, Pfizer-BioNTech, or Moderna vaccine. Reporting rates for TTS were 3.83 per million vaccine doses (Ad26.COV2.S) and 0.00855 per million vaccine doses (mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines). Of the 3 TTS cases after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna), two were in men older than 50 years and one was in a woman aged 50 to 59 years. All cases after J&J/Janssen vaccination involved hospitalization. Although rare, TTS is a serious adverse event associated with J&J/Janssen vaccination, which is no longer available in the U.S. as of May 2023.
See I, Lale A, Marquez P, Streiff MB, Wheeler AP, Tepper NK, Woo EJ, Broder KR, Edwards KM, Gallego R, Geller AI, Jackson KA, Sharma S, Talaaatt KR, Walter EB, Akpan IJ, Ortel TL, Walker SC, Yui JC, Shimabukuro TT, Mba-Jonas A, Su JR, Shay DK. Case Series of Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination—United States, December 2020-August 2021. medRxiv – the preprint server for health sciences 2021 Nov 14. doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.10.21266063
See I, Su JR, Lale A, Woo EJ, Guh AY, Shimabukuro TT, Streiff MB, Rao AK, Wheeler AP, Beavers SF, Durbin AP, Edwards K, Miller E, Harrington TA, Mba-Jonas A, Nair N, Nguyen DT, Talaat KR, Urrutia VC, Walker SC, Creech B, Clark TA, DeStefano F, Broder KR. US Case Reports of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia After Ad26.COV2.S Vaccination, March 2 to April 21, 2021 JAMA 2021 April 30. Doi:10.1001/jama.2021.7517 Epub ahead of print.
Schmader KE, Liu CK, Harrington T, Rountree W, Auebach H, Walter EB, Barnett ED, Schlaudecker EP, Todd CA, Poniewierski M, Staat M A, Wodi P, Broder KR. Safety, Reactogenicity, and Health-Related Quality of Life After Trivalent Adjuvanted versus Trivalent High-Dose Inactivated Influenza Vaccines in Older Adults. A Randomized Clinical Trial JAMA Network Open. 2021 Jan 4;4(1):e2031266.
Older adults are at higher risk of flu-related complications and are encouraged to get a flu vaccine. Previous studies have shown that Fluad trivalent (aIIV3) and Fluzone High-Dose trivalent (HD-IIV3) are more effective than standard trivalent doses in older adults, but aIIV3 and HD-IIV3 have not been compared directly. CISA Project conducted a randomized clinical trial to compare the two vaccines’ safety, effectiveness, and short-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) effects in adults ≥65 years. During the 2017-18 and 2018-19 influenza seasons, 757 adults were randomized to receive aIIV3 (378) and HD-IIV3 (379) vaccines. Moderate-to-severe injection-site pain after aIIV3 was not higher than HD-IIV3. Report of injection-site tenderness, joint pain, and fatigue were higher after aIIV3, but no serious adverse events were reported and no significant differences in HRQOL were observed. Overall, safety findings support using aIIV3 or HD-IIV3 to prevent influenza in older adults.
Walter EB, Klein NP, Wodi AP, Roundtree W, Todd CA, Wiesner A, Duffy J, Marquez PL, Broder K. Fever after Influenza, Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis, and Pneumococcal Vaccinations. Pediatrics. 2020 Mar;145(3):e20191909.
A previous CDC study showed that children aged 6-23 months had an increased risk for febrile seizure after simultaneously receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP). Researchers wanted to see if administering the IIV at a separate visit reduced the risk of post-vaccination fever and potentially febrile seizure. In the 2017-2018 influenza season, 221 children aged 12-16 months were randomized at two CISA sites into 2 groups. Both groups had 2 visits, 2 weeks apart: group 1 (simultaneous) received the PCV13, DTaP, and quadrivalent IIV (IIV4) vaccines at visit 1; no vaccines at visit 2. Group 2 (sequential) received PCV13 and DTaP at visit 1 and IIV4 visit 2. Similar proportions of children in both groups had fever on days 1-2 after visits (simultaneous 8.1%; sequential 9.3%). Delaying IIV4 by 2 weeks in children receiving DTaP and PCV13 did not reduce fever occurrence after vaccination.
Christianson MS, Wodi P, Talaat K, Halsey N. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency and Human Papilloma Virus Vaccines: A Review of the Current Evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Mar;222(3):239-244. Epub 2019 Aug 31.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer, and vaccination is the primary means of preventing cancers caused by HPV infection. Despite HPV vaccine being available for over a decade, coverage rates are lower than other vaccines. Public concerns regarding the vaccine’s safety, including that it may cause primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), have been identified as an important barrier to vaccination. POI-related concerns are driven in part by isolated reports of ovarian failure following the HPV vaccine. In this Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project review, researchers summarize published peer-reviewed literature on HPV vaccines and POI. In summary, the current evidence is insufficient to suggest or support a causal relationship between HPV vaccination and POI. Healthcare providers can help address concerns about POI and the HPV vaccine by sharing these findings during consultations with their patients.
Fortner KB, Swamy GK, Broder KR, Jimenez-Truque N, Zhu Y, Moro PL, Liang J, Walter EB, Heine RP, Moody MA, Yoder S, Edwards KM. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Vaccine. 2018 Oct 8;36(42):6354-6360. Epub 2018 Sep 13.
CDC recommends that pregnant women receive Tdap vaccine to protect young infants from pertussis (whooping cough). The CISA Project study enrolled 374 pregnant and 225 nonpregnant women to evaluate safety and immune responses after Tdap; 53% of the pregnant women had received Tdap in the past. Pregnancy and infant health outcomes were also assessed and will be described in a future report. Injection-site and systemic reactions (e.g., fever) were assessed for 7 days after Tdap. Blood was collected from the women before and after Tdap to evaluate immune responses. Researchers found that Tdap was well-tolerated in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Pregnant women were more likely to report moderate or severe injection-site pain (18%) compared with nonpregnant women (11%) but this did not lead to medical visits. Prior Tdap receipt did not increase occurrence of moderate or severe reactions in pregnant women. Immune responses to all Tdap vaccine antigens were robust in both groups.
Tamez RL, Tan WV, O’Malley JT, Broder KR, Garzon MC, LaRussa P, Lauren CT. Influenza B virus infection and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. 2018 Jan; 35(1):e45-e48. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
Kemper AR, Barnett ED, Walter EB, Hornik C, Pierre-Joseph N, Broder KR, Silverstein M, Harrington T. Drinking Water to Prevent Postvaccination Presyncope in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial. Pediatrics 2017 Nov; 140(5).
Stockwell MS, Marchant CD, Wodi AP, Barnett ED, Broder KR, Jakob K, Lewis P, Kattan M, Rezendes AM, Barrett A, Sharma D, Fernandez N, LaRussa P. A multi-site feasibility study to assess fever and wheezing in children after influenza vaccines using text messaging. Vaccine. 2017 Dec 15; 35(50):6941-6948. Epub 2017 Oct 28.
Walter EB, Hornik CP, Grohskopf L, McGee CE, Todd CA, Museru OI, Harrington L, Broder KR. The effect of antipyretics on immune response and fever following receipt of inactivated influenza vaccine in young children. Vaccine. 2017 Oct 19.
Stockwell MS, Broder KR, Lewis P, Jakob K, Iqbal S, Fernandez N, Sharma D, Barrett A, LaRussa P. Assessing Fever Frequency After Pediatric Live Attenuated Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccination. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017 Sep 1; 6(3):e7-e14.
Stockwell MS, Cano M, Jakob K, Broder KR, Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Castaño PM, Lewis P, Barrett A, Museru OI, Castellanos O, LaRussa PS. Feasibility of Text Message Influenza Vaccine Safety Monitoring During Pregnancy. Am J Prev Med. 2017 Sep; 53(3):282-289.
Shaw J, Halsey NA, Weinberg A, Scott Schmid D, George KS, Weldon WC, Jordan M, Bryant PW, LaRussa P, Bradshaw DY, Harrington T, Gershon A. Arm Paralysis After Routine Childhood Vaccinations: Application of Advanced Molecular Methods to the Causality Assessment of an Adverse Event After Immunization. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2017 Jan 25.
Lauren CT, Belsito DV, Morel KD, LaRussa P. Case Report of Subcutaneous Nodules and Sterile Abscesses Due to Delayed Type Hypersensitivity to Aluminum-Containing Vaccines. Pediatrics. 2016 Oct; 138(4).
Baxter R, Lewis N, Bohrer P, Harrington T, Aukes L, Klein NP. Sudden-Onset Sensorineural Hearing Loss after Immunization: A Case-Centered Analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Jul;155(1):81-6. Epub 2016 Mar 29.
Hofstetter AM, Jakob K, Klein NP, Dekker CL, Edwards KM, et al. Live vaccine use and safety in DiGeorge syndrome. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e946-54. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-0831. Epub 2014 Mar 31.
Grohskopf LA, Olsen SJ, Sokolow LZ, Bresee JS, Cox NJ, et al. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) — United States, 2014–15 Influenza Season. MMWR. 2014 Aug 15;63(32):691-697.
Stockwell MS, Broder K, LaRussa P, Lewis P, Fernandez N, et al. Risk of fever after pediatric trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. JAMA Pediatr. 2014 Mar;168(3):211-9. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4469.
Halsey NA, Griffioen M, Dreskin SC, Dekker CL, Wood R, et al. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions following monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccines: Reports to VAERS. Vaccine. 2013 Dec 9;31(51):6107-12. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.09.066. Epub 2013 Oct 8.
Pahud BA, Williams SE, Dekker CL, Halsey N, LaRussa P, et al. Clinical assessment of serious adverse events in children receiving 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Feb;32(2):163-168.
Williams SE, Edwards KM, Baxter RP, Larussa PS, Halsey NA, et al. Comprehensive assessment of serious adverse events following immunization by health care providers. J Pediatr. 2013 Jun;162(6):1276-81, 1281.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.01.028. Epub 2013 Feb 26.
Technical Report: The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Working Group. Review of a published report of cerebral vasculitis after vaccination with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine. November 2012.
Baxter R, Lewis N, Bakshi N, Vellozzi C, Klein NP; CISA Network. Recurrent Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccination. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Mar;54(6):800-4. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir960. Epub 2012 Jan 19.
Halsey NA, Edwards KM, Dekker CL, Klein NP, Baxter R, et al. Algorithm to assess causality after individual adverse events following immunizations. Vaccine. 2012 Aug 24;30(39):5791-8. Epub 2012 Apr 14.
Loughlin AM, Marchant CD, Adams W, Barnett E, Baxter R, et al. Causality assessment of adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Vaccine. 2012 Nov 26;30(50):7253-9. Epub 2012 Oct 9.
Pahud BA, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Glaser C, Gavali S, Salibay CJ, et al. Lack of association between childhood immunizations and encephalitis in California, 1998-2008. Vaccine. 2012 Jan 5;30(2):247-53.
Rowhani-Rahbar A, Klein NP, Dekker CL, Edwards KM, Marchant CD, et al. Biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research. Vaccine. 2012 Dec 17;31(1):271-7. Epub 2012 Jul 24.
Rowhani-Rahbar A, Baxter R, Rasgon B, Ray P, Black S, Klein JO, Klein NP. Epidemiologic and clinical features of Bell’s palsy among children in Northern California. Neuroepidemiology. 2012;38(4):252-8. doi: 10.1159/000338303. Epub 2012 Jun 5.
Rowhani-Rahbar A, Klein NP, Lewis N, Fireman B, Ray P, Rasgon B, Black S, Klein JO, Baxter R. Immunization and Bell’s palsy in children: A case-centered Analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2012 May 1;175(9):878-85. doi: 10.1093/aje/kws011. Epub 2012 Mar 12.
Klein NP, Gidudu J, Qiang Y, Pahud B, Rowhani-Rahbar A, et al. Developing the next generation of vaccinologists. Vaccine. 2011 Nov 21;29(50):9296-7. Epub 2011 Apr 19.
LaRussa P, Edwards K, Dekker C, Klein N, Halsey NA, et al. Understanding the role of human variation in vaccine adverse events: The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network. Pediatrics. 2011 May;127(5):e1147-53.
Klein N, Aukes L, Lee J,Fireman B, Shapira S, et al. Evaluation of immunization rates and safety among children with inborn errors of metabolism. Pediatrics. 2011 May;127(5):e1139-46. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-3706. Epub 2011 Apr 11.
Miller EK, Dumitrescu L, Cupp C, Dorris S, Taylor S, et al. Atopy history and the genomics of wheezing after influenza vaccination in children 6-59 months of age. Vaccine. 2011 Apr 18;29(18):3431-7.
Morgan TM, Schlegel C, Edwards KM, Welch-Burke T, Zhu Y, et al. Vaccines are not associated with metabolic events in children with urea cycle disorders. Pediatrics 2011 May;127(5):e1147-53. Epub 2011 Apr 11.
Navar-Boggan AM, Halsey NA, Escobar GJ, Golden WC, Klein NP. Underimmunization in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2012 May;32(5):363-7. doi: 10.1038/jp.2011.111. Epub 2011 Aug 11.
Pahud BA, Glaser CA, Dekker CL, Arvin AM, Schmid DS. Varicella zoster disease of the central nervous system: Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features 10 years after the introduction of the varicella vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 1;203(3):316-23.
Williams SE, Pahud BA, Vellozzi C, Donofrio PD, Dekker CL, et al. Causality assessment of serious neurologic adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccination. Vaccine. 2011 Oct 26;29(46):8302-8.
Williams SE, Klein NP, Halsey N, Dekker CL, Baxter RP, et al. Overview of the clinical consult case review of adverse events following immunization: Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network 2004-2009. Vaccine. 2011 Sep 16;29(40):6920.
Yen C, Jakob K, Hittier X, Gentsch J, LaRussa P, for the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network. Detection of fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine in infants following their first dose of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine. 2011May 31;29(24):4151-5.
Klein N, Gans H, Sung P, Yasukawa LL, Johnson J, et al. Preterm infants T cell responses to inactivated poliovirus vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 15;201(2):214-22. doi: 10.1086/649590.
Navar-Boggan AM, Halsey NA, Golden WC, Escobar GJ, Massolo M, and Klein NP. Risk of fever and sepsis evaluations following routine immunizations in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2010 Sep;30(9):604-9. doi: 10.1038/jp.2010.8. Epub 2010 Feb 25.
Durbin A, Setse R, Omer S, Palmer J, Spaeder J, et al. Monitoring adverse events following yellow fever vaccination using an integrated telephone and internet-based system. Vaccine. 2009 Oct 19; 27(44):6143-47.
Klein NP, Edwards KM, Sparks R and Dekker CL; on behalf of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network. Recurrent sterile abscesses following immunization: A possible association with aluminum adjuvant. BMJ Case Rep. 2009. pii: bcr09.2008.0951. doi: 10.1136/bcr.09.2008.0951. Epub 2009 Mar 17.
Klein N, Kissner J, Aguirre A, Sparks R, Campbell S, et al. Differential maternal responses to a newly developed vaccine information pamphlet. Vaccine.2009 Dec 11;28(2):323-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.046. Epub 2009 Oct 30.
Rosenberg M, Sparks R, McMahon A, Iskander J, Campbell JD, et al. Serious adverse events rarely reported after trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in children 6–23 months of age. Vaccine. 2009 Jul 9;27(32):4278-83. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.023. Epub 2009 May 28.
Halsey NA. The human papillomavirus vaccine and risk of anaphylaxis. [Commentary]. CMAJ. 2008 Sep 9;179(6):509-10. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.081133. Epub 2008 Sep 1. Erratum in: CMAJ. 2008 Sep 23; 179(7):678.
Kohl K, Magnus M, Ball R, Halsey N, Shadomy S, et al. Applicability, reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of six Brighton Collaboration standardized case definitions for adverse events following immunization. Vaccine. 2008 Nov 25; 26(50):6349–60.
Lindsey N, Schroeder B, Miller E, Braun M, Hinckley A, et al. Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination. Vaccine. 2008 Nov 11; 26(48): 6077-82.
Rennels M, Black S, Woo E, Campbell S, Edwards KM. Safety of a fifth dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis vaccine in children experiencing extensive, local reactions to the fourth dose. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 May;27(5):464-5. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31816591f7.
Wood R, Berger M, Dreskin S, Setse R, Engler R, et al. Algorithm for treatment of patients with hypersensitivity reactions after vaccines. Pediatrics. 2008 September; 122(3): e771-7.
Klein N, Fireman B, Enright A, Ray P, Black S, and Dekker CL for the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network. Role for genetics in the immune response to the varicella vaccine. Pediatr Inf Dis J. 2007 Apr; 26(4):300-5.
Wood RA, Setse R, Halsey N, and the Hypersensitivity Working Group of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network. Irritant skin test reactions to common vaccines. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Aug;120(2):478-81. Epub 2007 Jun 4.
Muralles AA, Ray P, Black S, and Shinefield H. Active telephone surveillance to evaluate adverse events among civilian smallpox vaccine recipients. Vaccine. 2006 Jan 23; 24(4):476-84.
Sekaran N, Edwards, K. Extensive swelling reaction associated with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Apr; 25(4):374-5.
Vellozzi C, Mitchell T, Miller E, Casey CG, Eidex RB, et al. Yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD) and corticosteroid therapy: Eleven United States cases, 1996-2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 August; 75(2):333-6.
Rollison D, Helzlsouer K, Halsey N, Shah K, and Viscidi R. Markers of past infection with simian virus 40 (SV40) and risk of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a Maryland cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 June; 14(6) 1448-1452.
Bonhoeffer J, Menkes J, Gold MS, de Souza-Brito G, Fisher MC, et al. Generalized convulsive seizure as an adverse event following immunization: Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation. Vaccine. 2004 Jan 26; 22(5-6):557-62.
Rothstein E, Kohl K, Ball L, Halperin S, Halsey N, et al. Nodule at injection site as an adverse event following immunization case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation. Vaccine. 2004 Jan 26; 22(5-6):575-85.
Halsey NA. The science of evaluation of adverse effects associated with vaccination. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2002 Jul;13(3):205-14.
Halsey NA. Anthrax vaccine and causality assessment from individual case reports. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2002 Apr-May;11(3):185-7; discussion 203-4.