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Antiviral Guide References

Guidance on the Use of Influenza Antiviral Agents

The information on this page should be considered as examples of background information for the 2017-2018 influenza season for clinical practice regarding the use of influenza antiviral medications.

Updated References

Abdel-Ghafar AN, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Hayden FG, Nguyen DH, de Jong MD, et al. Update on avian influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. The New England journal of medicine. 2008;358(3):261-73. Epub 2008/01/18. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra0707279. PubMed PMID: 18199865.

Adisasmito W, Chan PK, Lee N, Oner AF, Gasimov V, Aghayev F, et al. Effectiveness of antiviral treatment in human influenza A(H5N1) infections: analysis of a Global Patient Registry. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2010;202(8):1154-60. Epub 2010/09/14. doi: 10.1086/656316. PubMed PMID: 20831384.

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization of health-care personnel: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report Recommendations and reports. 2011;60(Rr-7):1-45. Epub 2011/11/24. PubMed PMID: 22108587.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement–recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2010-2011. Pediatrics. 2010;126(4):816-26. Epub 2010/09/02. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2216. PubMed PMID: 20805143.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Recommendations for prevention and control of influenza in children, 2013-2014. Pediatrics. 2013;132(4):e1089-104. Epub 2013/09/04. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2377. PubMed PMID: 23999962.

Aoki FY, Macleod MD, Paggiaro P, Carewicz O, El Sawy A, Wat C, et al. Early administration of oral oseltamivir increases the benefits of influenza treatment. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2003;51(1):123-9. Epub 2002/12/21. PubMed PMID: 12493796.

Ariano RE, Sitar DS, Zelenitsky SA, Zarychanski R, Pisipati A, Ahern S, et al. Enteric absorption and pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir in critically ill patients with pandemic (H1N1) influenza. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne. 2010;182(4):357-63. Epub 2010/02/18. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.092127. PubMed PMID: 20159892; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2831695.

Ayscue P, Murray E, Uyeki T, Zipprich J, Harriman K, Salibay C, et al. Influenza-associated intensive-care unit admissions and deaths – California, September 29, 2013-January 18, 2014. MMWR Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2014;63(7):143-7. Epub 2014/02/21. PubMed PMID: 24553197.

Bautista E, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Harper SA, Shaw M, Uyeki TM, et al. Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. The New England journal of medicine. 2010;362(18):1708-19. Epub 2010/05/07. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1000449. PubMed PMID: 20445182.

Beau AB, Hurault-Delarue C, Vial T, Montastruc JL, Damase-Michel C, Lacroix I. Safety of oseltamivir during pregnancy: a comparative study using the EFEMERIS database. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2014;121(7):895-900. Epub 2014/02/12. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12617. PubMed PMID: 24512604.

Blyth CC, Iredell JR, Dwyer DE. Rapid-test sensitivity for novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. The New England journal of medicine. 2009;361(25):2493. Epub 2009/11/20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc0909049. PubMed PMID: 19923563.

Booy R, Lindley RI, Dwyer DE, Yin JK, Heron LG, Moffatt CR, et al. Treating and preventing influenza in aged care facilities: a cluster randomised controlled trial. PloS one. 2012;7(10):e46509. Epub 2012/10/20. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046509. PubMed PMID: 23082123; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3474842.

Bradley JS, Blumer JL, Romero JR, Michaels MG, Munoz FM, Kimberlin DW, et al. Intravenous Zanamivir in Hospitalized Patients With Influenza. Pediatrics. 2017;140(5). Epub 2017/10/21. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-2727. PubMed PMID: 29051331.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention Strategies for Seasonal Influenza in Healthcare Settings Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/healthcaresettings.htm.

Chan-Tack KM, Gao A, Himaya AC, Thompson EG, Singer ME, Uyeki TM, et al. Clinical experience with intravenous zanamivir under an emergency investigational new drug program in the United States. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2013;207(1):196-8. Epub 2012/10/24. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis637. PubMed PMID: 23089591.

Chartrand C, Leeflang MM, Minion J, Brewer T, Pai M. Accuracy of rapid influenza diagnostic tests: a meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine. 2012;156(7):500-11. Epub 2012/03/01. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-156-7-201204030-00403. PubMed PMID: 22371850.

Chaves SS, Perez A, Miller L, Bennett NM, Bandyopadhyay A, Farley MM, et al. Impact of Prompt Influenza Antiviral Treatment on Extended Care Needs After Influenza Hospitalization Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2015;61(12):1807-14. Epub 2015/09/04. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ733. PubMed PMID: 26334053.

Chen LF, Dailey NJ, Rao AK, Fleischauer AT, Greenwald I, Deyde VM, et al. Cluster of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infections on a hospital ward among immunocompromised patients–North Carolina, 2009. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2011;203(6):838-46. Epub 2011/02/24. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiq124. PubMed PMID: 21343149; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3307091.

Choi SH, Kim T, Park KH, Kwak YG, Chung JW, Lee MS. Early administration of neuraminidase inhibitors in adult patients hospitalized for influenza does not benefit survival: a retrospective cohort study. European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology. 2017;36(9):1673-7. Epub 2017/04/19. doi: 10.1007/s10096-017-2982-z. PubMed PMID: 28417272.

Chowell G, Viboud C, Simonsen L, Miller MA, Echevarria-Zuno S, Gonzalez-Leon M, et al. Impact of antiviral treatment and hospital admission delay on risk of death associated with 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza in Mexico. BMC infectious diseases. 2012;12:97. Epub 2012/04/24. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-97. PubMed PMID: 22520743; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3449201.

Coffin SE, Leckerman K, Keren R, Hall M, Localio R, Zaoutis TE. Oseltamivir shortens hospital stays of critically ill children hospitalized with seasonal influenza: a retrospective cohort study. The Pediatric infectious disease journal. 2011;30(11):962-6. Epub 2011/10/15. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318232ede9. PubMed PMID: 21997661; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3426912.

Committee on Infectious Diseases. Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Influenza in Children, 2017 – 2018. Pediatrics. 2017;140(4). Epub 2017/09/06. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-2550. PubMed PMID: 28870977.

Committee on Obstetric Practice and Immunization Expert Work Group; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Advisory Committee on Immunization-United States; American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion no. 608: influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2014 Sep;124(3):648-51. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000453599.11566.11. PubMed PMID: 25162283.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Expert opinion on neuraminidase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza – review of recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. 2017; Stockholm: ECDC; 2017.

de Jong MD, Ison MG, Monto AS, Metev H, Clark C, O’Neil B, et al. Evaluation of intravenous peramivir for treatment of influenza in hospitalized patients. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2014;59(12):e172-85. Epub 2014/08/15. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu632. PubMed PMID: 25115871.

de Jong MD, Simmons CP, Thanh TT, Hien VM, Smith GJ, Chau TN, et al. Fatal outcome of human influenza A (H5N1) is associated with high viral load and hypercytokinemia. Nature medicine. 2006;12(10):1203-7. Epub 2006/09/12. doi: 10.1038/nm1477. PubMed PMID: 16964257; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4333202.

Dobson J, Whitley RJ, Pocock S, Monto AS. Oseltamivir treatment for influenza in adults: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet (London, England). 2015;385(9979):1729-37. Epub 2015/02/03. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(14)62449-1. PubMed PMID: 25640810.

Dulek DE, Williams JV, Creech CB, Schulert AK, Frangoul HA, Domm J, et al. Use of intravenous zanamivir after development of oseltamivir resistance in a critically Ill immunosuppressed child infected with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2010;50(11):1493-6. Epub 2010/04/27. doi: 10.1086/652655. PubMed PMID: 20415572.

Dunstan HJ, Mill AC, Stephens S, Yates LM, Thomas SH. Pregnancy outcome following maternal use of zanamivir or oseltamivir during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic: a national prospective surveillance study. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2014;121(7):901-6. Epub 2014/03/08. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.12640. PubMed PMID: 24602087.

Earhart KC, Elsayed NM, Saad MD, Gubareva LV, Nayel A, Deyde VM, et al. Oseltamivir resistance mutation N294S in human influenza A(H5N1) virus in Egypt. Journal of infection and public health. 2009;2(2):74-80. Epub 2009/01/01. doi: 10.1016/j.jiph.2009.04.004. PubMed PMID: 20701864.

Ebell MH, Call M, Shinholser J. Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials. Family practice. 2013;30(2):125-33. Epub 2012/09/22. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cms059. PubMed PMID: 22997224.

Eriksson CO, Graham DA, Uyeki TM, Randolph AG. Risk factors for mechanical ventilation in U.S. children hospitalized with seasonal influenza and 2009 pandemic influenza A*. Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2012;13(6):625-31. Epub 2012/08/17. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e318260114e. PubMed PMID: 22895006.

Eyler RF, Heung M, Pleva M, Sowinski KM, Park PK, Napolitano LM, et al. Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous hemodialysis and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pharmacotherapy. 2012;32(12):1061-9. Epub 2012/12/05. doi: 10.1002/phar.1151. PubMed PMID: 23208833.

Eyler RF, Klein KC, Mueller BA. The pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in a critically ill pediatric patient receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous venovenous hemodialysis. The journal of pediatric pharmacology and therapeutics : JPPT : the official journal of PPAG. 2012;17(2):173-6. Epub 2012/11/03. doi: 10.5863/1551-6776-17.2.173. PubMed PMID: 23118670; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3470438.

Finelli L, Fiore A, Dhara R, Brammer L, Shay DK, Kamimoto L, et al. Influenza-associated pediatric mortality in the United States: increase of Staphylococcus aureus coinfection. Pediatrics. 2008;122(4):805-11. Epub 2008/10/03. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1336. PubMed PMID: 18829805.

Fiore AE, Fry A, Shay D, Gubareva L, Bresee JS, Uyeki TM. Antiviral agents for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza — recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recommendations and reports : Morbidity and mortality weekly report Recommendations and reports. 2011;60(1):1-24. Epub 2011/01/21. PubMed PMID: 21248682.

Food and Drug Administration. Influenza (Flu) Antiviral Drugs and Related Information. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/InformationbyDrugClass/ucm100228.htm.

Food and Drug Administration. Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations. 37th edition. 2017.

Fry AM, Goswami D, Nahar K, Sharmin AT, Rahman M, Gubareva L, et al. Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2014;14(2):109-18. Epub 2013/11/26. doi: 10.1016/s1473-3099(13)70267-6. PubMed PMID: 24268590.

Gaur AH, Bagga B, Barman S, Hayden R, Lamptey A, Hoffman JM, et al. Intravenous zanamivir for oseltamivir-resistant 2009 H1N1 influenza. The New England journal of medicine. 2010;362(1):88-9. Epub 2009/12/25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc0910893. PubMed PMID: 20032317.

Giraud C, Manceau S, Oualha M, Chappuy H, Mogenet A, Duchene P, et al. High levels and safety of oseltamivir carboxylate plasma concentrations after nasogastric administration in critically ill children in a pediatric intensive care unit. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2011;55(1):433-5. Epub 2010/10/13. doi: 10.1128/aac.00813-10. PubMed PMID: 20937783; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3019675.

Graitcer SB, Gubareva L, Kamimoto L, Doshi S, Vandermeer M, Louie J, et al. Characteristics of patients with oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States. Emerging infectious diseases. 2011;17(2):255-7. Epub 2011/02/05. doi: 10.3201/eid1702.101724. PubMed PMID: 21291599; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3204784.

Graner S, Svensson T, Beau AB, Damase-Michel C, Engeland A, Furu K, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors during pregnancy and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes and congenital malformations: population based European register study. BMJ (Clinical research ed). 2017;356:j629. Epub 2017/03/02. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j629. PubMed PMID: 28246106; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5421412.

Greer LG, Sheffield JS, Rogers VL, Roberts SW, McIntire DD, Wendel GD, Jr. Maternal and neonatal outcomes after antepartum treatment of influenza with antiviral medications. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2010;115(4):711-6. Epub 2010/03/24. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181d44752. PubMed PMID: 20308829.

Hageman JC, Uyeki TM, Francis JS, Jernigan DB, Wheeler JG, Bridges CB, et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003-04 influenza season. Emerging infectious diseases. 2006;12(6):894-9. Epub 2006/05/19. PubMed PMID: 16707043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3373026.

Harper SA, Bradley JS, Englund JA, File TM, Gravenstein S, Hayden FG, et al. Seasonal influenza in adults and children–diagnosis, treatment, chemoprophylaxis, and institutional outbreak management: clinical practice guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2009;48(8):1003-32. Epub 2009/03/14. doi: 10.1086/598513. PubMed PMID: 19281331.

Harter G, Zimmermann O, Maier L, Schubert A, Mertens T, Kern P, et al. Intravenous zanamivir for patients with pneumonitis due to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2010;50(9):1249-51. Epub 2010/04/07. doi: 10.1086/651604. PubMed PMID: 20367227.

Havers F, Thaker S, Clippard JR, Jackson M, McLean HQ, Gaglani M, et al. Use of influenza antiviral agents by ambulatory care clinicians during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2014;59(6):774-82. Epub 2014/07/19. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu422. PubMed PMID: 25034419; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4200045.

Heneghan CJ, Onakpoya I, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Hama R, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of regulatory and mortality data. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 2016;20(42):1-242. Epub 2016/06/02. doi: 10.3310/hta20420. PubMed PMID: 27246259; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4904189.

Hernan MA, Lipsitch M. Oseltamivir and risk of lower respiratory tract complications in patients with flu symptoms: a meta-analysis of eleven randomized clinical trials. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2011;53(3):277-9. Epub 2011/06/17. doi: 10.1093/cid/cir400. PubMed PMID: 21677258; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3137795.

Hiba V, Chowers M, Levi-Vinograd I, Rubinovitch B, Leibovici L, Paul M. Benefit of early treatment with oseltamivir in hospitalized patients with documented 2009 influenza A (H1N1): retrospective cohort study. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 2011;66(5):1150-5. Epub 2011/03/12. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkr089. PubMed PMID: 21393197.

Hsu J, Santesso N, Mustafa R, Brozek J, Chen YL, Hopkins JP, et al. Antivirals for treatment of influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Annals of internal medicine. 2012;156(7):512-24. Epub 2012/03/01. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-156-7-201204030-00411. PubMed PMID: 22371849.

Hurt AC, Chotpitayasunondh T, Cox NJ, Daniels R, Fry AM, Gubareva LV, et al. Antiviral resistance during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic: public health, laboratory, and clinical perspectives. The Lancet Infectious diseases. 2012;12(3):240-8. Epub 2011/12/22. doi: 10.1016/s1473-3099(11)70318-8. PubMed PMID: 22186145.

Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Gehrig N, et al. Community transmission of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. The New England journal of medicine. 2011;365(26):2541-2. Epub 2011/12/30. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1111078. PubMed PMID: 22204735.

Hurt AC, Hardie K, Wilson NJ, Deng YM, Osbourn M, Leang SK, et al. Characteristics of a widespread community cluster of H275Y oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza in Australia. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2012;206(2):148-57. Epub 2012/05/09. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis337. PubMed PMID: 22561367; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3379839.

Ison MG, Fraiz J, Heller B, Jauregui L, Mills G, O’Riordan W, et al. Intravenous peramivir for treatment of influenza in hospitalized patients. Antiviral therapy. 2014;19(4):349-61. Epub 2013/08/30. doi: 10.3851/imp2680. PubMed PMID: 23985625.

Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Hama R, Thompson MJ, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2014(4):Cd008965. Epub 2014/04/11. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008965.pub4. PubMed PMID: 24718923.

Jefferson T, Jones MA, Doshi P, Del Mar CB, Heneghan CJ, Hama R, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2012;1:Cd008965. Epub 2012/01/20. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008965.pub3. PubMed PMID: 22258996.

Jittamala P, Pukrittayakamee S, Tarning J, Lindegardh N, Hanpithakpong W, Taylor WR, et al. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered oseltamivir in healthy obese and nonobese Thai subjects. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2014;58(3):1615-21. Epub 2013/12/25. doi: 10.1128/aac.01786-13. PubMed PMID: 24366750; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3957867.

Kidd IM, Down J, Nastouli E, Shulman R, Grant PR, Howell DC, et al. H1N1 pneumonitis treated with intravenous zanamivir. Lancet (London, England). 2009;374(9694):1036. Epub 2009/09/08. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(09)61528-2. PubMed PMID: 19733390.

Kimberlin DW, Acosta EP, Prichard MN, Sanchez PJ, Ampofo K, Lang D, et al. Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics, dosing, and resistance among children aged <2 years with influenza. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2013;207(5):709-20. Epub 2012/12/12. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jis765. PubMed PMID: 23230059; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3563309.

Kohno S, Kida H, Mizuguchi M, Shimada J. Efficacy and safety of intravenous peramivir for treatment of seasonal influenza virus infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2010;54(11):4568-74. Epub 2010/08/18. doi: 10.1128/aac.00474-10. PubMed PMID: 20713668; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2976170.

Komeda T, Ishii S, Itoh Y, Ariyasu Y, Sanekata M, Yoshikawa T, et al. Post-marketing safety and effectiveness evaluation of the intravenous anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor peramivir. II: a pediatric drug use investigation. Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy. 2015;21(3):194-201. Epub 2014/12/20. doi: 10.1016/j.jiac.2014.11.009. PubMed PMID: 25523716.

Kromdijk W, Sikma MA, van den Broek MP, Beijnen JH, Huitema AD, de Lange DW. Pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill patients: each patient is unique. Intensive care medicine. 2013;39(5):977-8. Epub 2013/02/28. doi: 10.1007/s00134-013-2851-x. PubMed PMID: 23443310.

Kumar D, Morris MI, Kotton CN, Fischer SA, Michaels MG, Allen U, et al. Guidance on novel influenza A/H1N1 in solid organ transplant recipients. American journal of transplantation : official journal of the American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. 2010;10(1):18-25. Epub 2009/12/05. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02960.x. PubMed PMID: 19958321.

Lackenby A, Moran Gilad J, Pebody R, Miah S, Calatayud L, Bolotin S, et al. Continued emergence and changing epidemiology of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, United Kingdom, winter 2010/11. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin. 2011;16(5). Epub 2011/02/15. PubMed PMID: 21315056.

Lee EH, Wu C, Lee EU, Stoute A, Hanson H, Cook HA, et al. Fatalities associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus in New York City. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2010;50(11):1498-504. Epub 2010/04/28. doi: 10.1086/652446. PubMed PMID: 20420514.

Lee J, Park JH, Jwa H, Kim YH. Comparison of Efficacy of Intravenous Peramivir and Oral Oseltamivir for the Treatment of Influenza: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Yonsei medical journal. 2017;58(4):778-85. Epub 2017/05/26. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2017.58.4.778. PubMed PMID: 28540991; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5447109.

Lee N, Choi KW, Chan PK, Hui DS, Lui GC, Wong BC, et al. Outcomes of adults hospitalised with severe influenza. Thorax. 2010;65(6):510-5. Epub 2010/06/05. doi: 10.1136/thx.2009.130799. PubMed PMID: 20522848.

Lee N, Cockram CS, Chan PK, Hui DS, Choi KW, Sung JJ. Antiviral treatment for patients hospitalized with severe influenza infection may affect clinical outcomes. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2008;46(8):1323-4. Epub 2008/05/01. doi: 10.1086/533477. PubMed PMID: 18444878.

Lee N, Hui DS, Zuo Z, Ngai KL, Lui GC, Wo SK, et al. A prospective intervention study on higher-dose oseltamivir treatment in adults hospitalized with influenza a and B infections. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2013;57(11):1511-9. Epub 2013/09/21. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit597. PubMed PMID: 24046309.

Lemaitre F, Luyt CE, Roullet-Renoleau F, Nieszkowska A, Zahr N, Corvol E, et al. Impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration on the pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill patients with pandemic (H1N1) influenza. Therapeutic drug monitoring. 2012;34(2):171-5. Epub 2012/02/23. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e318248672c. PubMed PMID: 22354159.

L’Huillier AG, Abed Y, Petty TJ, Cordey S, Thomas Y, Bouhy X, et al. E119D Neuraminidase Mutation Conferring Pan-Resistance to Neuraminidase Inhibitors in an A(H1N1)pdm09 Isolate From a Stem-Cell Transplant Recipient. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2015;212(11):1726-34. Epub 2015/05/20. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv288. PubMed PMID: 25985905; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4633758.

Lipsitch M, Hernan MA. Oseltamivir effect on antibiotic-treated lower respiratory tract complications in virologically positive randomized trial participants. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2013;57(9):1368-9. Epub 2013/07/26. doi: 10.1093/cid/cit481. PubMed PMID: 23883518; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3792722.

Louie JK, Lampiris H. Treating Influenza With Neuraminidase Inhibitors: What Is the Evidence? JAMA internal medicine. 2015;175(12):1899-900. Epub 2015/10/27. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.5747. PubMed PMID: 26501509.

Louie JK, Yang S, Acosta M, Yen C, Samuel MC, Schechter R, et al. Treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors for critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2012;55(9):1198-204. Epub 2012/07/31. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis636. PubMed PMID: 22843781.

Louie JK, Yang S, Samuel MC, Uyeki TM, Schechter R. Neuraminidase inhibitors for critically ill children with influenza. Pediatrics. 2013;132(6):e1539-45. Epub 2013/11/28. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2149. PubMed PMID: 24276847.

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PDF Version [1 MB, 28 pages]

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