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For more information on Clostridium botulinum outbreaks reported to CDC:

  1. Go to NORS Dashboard.
  2. Set your search parameters, being sure to select “Clostridium” as the etiology.
  3. At the bottom of the page, select “Download current search data.”
  4. Sort by “Genus Species” or select the arrow next to that heading to select only “Clostridium botulinum.

Case Definition

Surveillance

Botulism Manual

Podcast

 Dr. Agam Rao
Botulism: Countering Common Clinical Misperceptions
April 1, 2013 Dr. Agam Rao discusses how to recognize and treat botulism and addresses common clinical misperceptions about the illness.
Read the transcript

Publications

“Botulism,” a CDC-sponsored supplement to Clinical Infectious Diseases

Topics include:

  • Clinical characteristics
  • Systematic reviews of literature on botulism among pregnant women and children
  • Safety, effectiveness, and allergic profile of antitoxin
  • Outbreak investigations
  • Case reports describing uncommon clinical features

Citation: Sobel J, Rao A. Making the best of the evidence: towards national clinical guidelines for botulism. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 27;66(Suppl_1):1–3. DOI

 

General Information on Botulism

  • Jackson KA, Mahon BE, Copeland J, Fagan R. Botulism mortality in the United States, 1975–2009. The Botulinum J. 2016; 3(1):6–17. DOI
  • Yu, PA, Maslanka SE, St Louis ME, Swerdlow DL. Botulism. In: Abrutyn E, Brachman PS. editors. Bacterial Infections in Humans. New York: Springer; 2009. p. 159–176.
  • Gottlieb SL, Kretsinger K, Tarkhasvili N, et al. Long-term outcomes of 217 botulism cases in the Republic of Georgia. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 15;45(2):174-80. DOI PubMed
  • Gupta A, Sumner CJ, Castor M, Maslanka S, Sobel J. Adult botulism type F in the United States, 1981–2002. Neurology. 2005 Dec 13; 65(11):1694–700. DOI PubMed
  • Sobel J. Botulism. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 15; 41(8):1167–73. DOI PubMed
  • Simpson LL. Identification of the major steps in botulinum toxin action. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004 Feb 10; 44:167–93. DOI PubMed
  • Shapiro RL, Hatheway C, Swerdlow DL. Botulism in the United States: a clinical and epidemiologic review. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Aug 1; 129(3):221–8. DOI PubMed
  • Angulo FJ, St. Louis ME. Botulism. In: Evans AS, Brachman PS, eds. Bacterial Infections of Humans. New York: Plenum; 1998. p. 131­­­­­­­–3.
  • Merson MH, Hughes JM, Dowell VR, Taylor A, Barker WH, Gangarosa EJ. Current trends in botulism in the United States. JAMA. 1974; 229:1305–8.
  • Gangarosa EJ, Donadio JA, Armstrong RW, Meyer KF, Brachman PS, Dowell VR. Botulism in the United States, 1899­­–1969. Am J Epidemiol. 1971 Feb; 93(2):93–101. DOI PubMed

Foodborne Botulism

Botulism linked to improperly home-canned, fermented, or preserved foods, including traditional Alaska Native foods
  • McCarty CL, Angelo K, Beer KD, Cibulskas-White K, Quinn K, de Fijter S, et al. Large outbreak of botulism associated with a church potluck meal—Ohio, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015 Jul 31; 64(29):802–3. PubMed
  • Tarkhashvili N, Chokheli M, Chubinidze M, Abazashvili N, Chakvetadze N, Imnadze P, et al. Regional variations in home canning practices and the risk of foodborne botulism in the Republic of Georgia, 2003. J Food Prot. 2015 Apr; 78(4):746–50. DOI PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Botulism associated with home-fermented tofu in two Chinese immigrants—New York City, March–April 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 July 5; 62(26):529–32. PubMed
  • Date K, Fagan R, Crossland S, MacEachern D, Pyper B, Bokanyi R, et al. Three outbreaks of foodborne botulism caused by unsafe home canning of vegetables—Ohio and Washington, 2008 and 2009. J Food Prot. 2011; 74(12):2090–6. DOI PubMed
  • Sobel J, Malavet M, John S. Outbreak of clinically mild botulism type E illness from home-salted fish in patients presenting with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 15; 45(2):e14–6. DOI PubMed
  • Ungchusak K, Chunsuttiwat S, Braden CR, Aldis W, Ueno K, Olsen SJ, Wiboolpolprasert S. The need for global planned mobilization of essential medicine: lessons from a massive Thai botulism outbreak. Bull World Health Organ. 2007 Mar; 85(3):238– DOI [PDF – 3 pages] PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Brief Report: Foodborne botulism from home-prepared fermented tofu—California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Feb 9; 56(5):96–7. MMWR
  • Chiou LA, Hennessy TW, Horn A, Carter G, Butler JC. Botulism among Alaska natives in the Bristol Bay area of southwest Alaska: a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to fermented foods known to cause botulism. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2002 Feb; 61(1):50–60. DOI PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism from eating home-pickled eggs—Illinois, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000 Sep 1; 49(34):778–80. PubMed
Botulism linked to pruno, a type of homemade alcohol
  • McCrickard L, Marlow M, Self JL, Francois-Watkins L, Chatham-Stephens K, Anderson J, et al. Notes from the field: botulism outbreak from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol in a federal correctional facility—Mississippi, June 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Jan 6; 65(52):1491–2. DOI PubMed
  • Walters M, Sreenivasan N, Person B, Shew M, Wheeler D, Hall J, et al. A qualitative inquiry about pruno, an illicit alcoholic beverage linked to botulism outbreaks in United States prisons. Am J Public Health. 2015 Nov; 105(11):2256–61. DOI PubMed
  • Adams LE, Yasmin S, Briggs G, Redden K, Silvas S, Anderson S, et al. Alcohol production, prevention strategies, and inmate knowledge about the risk for botulism from pruno consumption in a correctional facility—Arizona, 2013. J Correct Health Care. 2015 Oct; 21(4):335–42. DOI PubMed
  • Briggs G, Anderson S, Komatsu K, Weiss J, Henke E, Tsang CA. Notes from the field: botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol—Arizona, 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 Feb 8; 62(5):88. PubMed
  • Thurston D, Risk I, Hill MB, Vitek D, Bogdanow L, Robertson J, et al. Botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol—Utah, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012 Oct 5; 61(39):782–4. PubMed
  • Vugia DJ, Mase SR, Cole B, Stiles J, Rosenberg J, Velasquez L, et al. Botulism from drinking pruno. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Jan; 15(1):69–71. DOI PubMed
  • Angulo FJ, Getz J, Taylor JP, Hendricks KA, Hatheway CL, Barth SS, et al. A large outbreak of botulism: the hazardous baked potato. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jul; 178(1):172–7. DOI PubMed
Botulism linked to other foods
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: botulism caused by consumption of commercially produced potato soups stored improperly—Ohio and Georgia, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jul 8; 60(26):890. PubMed
  • Sheth AN, Wiersma P, Atrubin D, Dubey V, Zink D, Skinner G, et al. International outbreak of severe botulism with prolonged toxemia caused by commercial carrot juice. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Nov 15; 47(10):1245–51. DOI PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Botulism associated with commercially canned chili sauce—Texas and Indiana. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007 Aug 3; 56(30):767–9. PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Botulism associated with commercial carrot juice—Georgia and Florida, September 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Oct 13; 55(40):1098–9. PubMed
  • McLaughlin JB, Sobel J, Lynn T, Funk E, Middaugh JP. Botulism type E outbreak associated with eating a beached whale, Alaska. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep; 10(9):1685–7. DOI PubMed
  • Kalluri P, Crowe C, Reller M, Gaul L, Hayslett J, Barth S, et al. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with food sold at a salvage store in Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 1; 37(11):1490–5. DOI Pub Med
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Foodborne botulism—Oklahoma, 1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 Mar 24; 44(11):200–2. PubMed
  • Chai E, Choi E, Guitierrez C, Hochman M, Johnkutty Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiologic notes and reports fish botulism—Hawaii, 1990. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1991 Jun  21; 40(24):412–4. MMWR
  • St. Louis ME, Peck S, Bowering D, Morgan GB, Blatherwick J, Banerjee S, et al. Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak. Ann Intern Med. 1988 Mar; 108(3):363–8. PubMed
  • Eichner ER, Gunsolus JM, Powers JF. “Belladonna” Poisoning Confused With Botulism. JAMA. 1967 Aug 28; 201:695–6.
Other foodborne botulism
  • Sobel J, Tucker N, McLaughlin J, Maslanka S. Foodborne botulism in the United States, 1999–2000. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sep; 10(9):1606–11. DOI PubMed
  • Varma JK, Katsitadze G, Moiscrafishvili M, Zardiashvili T, Chikheli M, Tarkashvili N, et al. Foodborne botulism in the Republic of Georgia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Sept; 10(9):1601–5. DOI PubMed
  • Varma JK, Katsitadze G, Moiscrafishvili M, Zardiashvili T, Chokheli M, Tarkhashvili N, et al. Signs and symptoms predictive of death in patients with foodborne botulism—Republic of Georgia, 1980–2002. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Aug 1; 39(3):357–62. DOI PubMed

Botulism in Alaska

  • Castrodale LJ (ed.). Botulism in Alaska: A Guide for Physicians and Health Care Providers. State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. 2011. Link PDF
  • Fagan RP, McLaughlin JB, Castrodale LJ, Gessner BD, Jenkerson SA, Funk EA, et al. Endemic foodborne botulism among Alaska Native persons—Alaska, 1947–2007. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2011 Mar 1; 52(5):585–92. DOI PubMed
  • Chiou LA, Hennessy TW, Horn A, Carter G, Butler JC. Botulism among Alaska Natives in the Bristol Bay area of southwest Alaska: a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to fermented foods known to cause botulism. Int J Circumpolar Health. 2002 Feb; 61(1):50–60. PubMed
  • Shaffer N, Wainwright RB, Middaugh JP, Tauxe RV. Botulism among Alaska Natives. The role of changing food preparation and consumption practices. West J Med. 1990 Oct; 153(4):390–3. PubMed

Infant Botulism

  • Vanella de Cuetos EE, Fernandez RA, Bianco MI, Sartori OJ, Piovano ML, Luquez C, et al. Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Nov; 18(11):1845–9. DOI PubMed
  • Arnon SS, Barzilay EJ. Clostridial infections: botulism and infant botulism. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, editors. The Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Elk Grove Village (IL): American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009. p. 259–62. PDF
  • Barzilay E, Schlundt J, Toyofuku H. Intestinal botulism formerly infant botulism. In: Heymann DL, editor. Control of Communicable Disease Manual. 19th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association. 2008. p. 79–87.
  • Koepke R, Sobel J, Arnon S. Global occurrence of infant botulism, 1976–2006. Pediatrics. 2008 Jul; 122(1):e72–82. DOI PubMed
  • Arnon SS, Schechter R, Maslanka SE, Jewell NP, Hatheway CL. Human botulism immune globulin for the treatment of infant botulism. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 2; 354(5):462–71. DOI PubMed
  • Armada M, Love S, Barrett E, Monroe J, Peery D, Sobel J. Foodborne botulism in a six-month-old infant caused by home-canned baby food. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 Aug; 42(2):226–9. DOI PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infant botulism—New York City, 2001–2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Jan 17; 52(2):21–4. PubMed
  • Olsen SJ, Swerdlow DL. Risk of infant botulism from corn syrup. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Jun; 19(6):584–5. PubMed

Wound Botulism

  • Yuan J, Inami G, Mohle-Boetani J, Vugia DJ. Recurrent wound botulism among injection drug users in California. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1; 52(7):862–6. DOI PubMed
  • Reller ME, Douce RW, Maslanka SE, Torres DS, Manock SR, Sobel J. Wound botulism acquired in the Amazonian rain forest of Ecuador. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Apr; 74(4):628–31. PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Wound botulism among black tar heroin users—Washington, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Sep 19; 52(37):885–6. DOI PubMed
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Wound botulism—California, 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 Dec 8; 44(48)889–92. PubMed

Antitoxin and Emergency Response

  • Rao AK, Jackson KA, Mahon BE. The eyes have it. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 24; 368(4):392. DOI PubMed
  • Fagan RP, Neil KP, Sasich R, Luquez C, Asaad H, Maslanka S, et al. Initial recovery and rebound of type F intestinal colonization botulism after administration of investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Nov; 53(9):e125–8. DOI PubMed
  • Maslanka SE, Luquez C, Raphael BH, Dykes JK, Joseph, LA. Utility of botulinum toxin ELISA A, B, E, F kits for clinical laboratory investigations of human botulism. Botulinum J. 2011; 2(1):72–92. DOI
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Investigational heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT) to replace licensed antitoxin AB and investigational botulinum antitoxin E. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Mar 19; 59(10):299. PubMed

Botulism Toxin as a Threat Agent

  • Sobel J. Botulism. In: Lutwick LI, Lutwick SM, eds. Beyond Anthrax: The Weaponization of Infectious Diseases. Towata (NJ): Humana Press. 2009. p. 85–105.
  • Arnon SS, Schechter R, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, et al. Botulinum toxin as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2001 Feb 28; 285(8):1059–70. DOI PubMed
  • Shapiro RL, Hatheway C, Becher J, Swerdlow DL. Botulism surveillance and emergency response: a public health strategy for a global challenge. JAMA. 1997 Aug 6; 278(5):433–5. DOI PubMed

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