Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Chester Infections
Posted June 18, 2010
This outbreak appears to be over. However, Salmonella is an important cause of human illness in the United States. More information about Salmonella, and steps people can take to reduce their risk of infection, can be found on the CDC Salmonella Web Page.
Persons Infected with the Outbreak Strain of Salmonella Chester, United States, by State
Infections with the Outbreak Strain of Salmonella Chester, by Week of Illness Onset
CDC is collaborating with public health officials in many states, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA/FSIS), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype Chester infections. Investigators are using DNA analysis of Salmonella bacteria obtained through diagnostic testing to identify cases of illness that may be part of this outbreak.
As of 9:00 AM EDT on June 18, 2010, a total of 30 individuals infected with a matching strain of Salmonella Chester have been reported from 15 states since April 11, 2010. The number of ill people identified in each state with this strain is as follows: CA (4), CO (2), GA (6), IL (1), KY (1), MA (2), MN (2), MO (1), NC (1), OK (1), OR (2), SC (2), TN (1), UT (1), and VA (3). Among those for whom information is available about when symptoms started, illnesses began between April 5, 2010 and May 29, 2010. Case-patients range in age from <1 to 88 years old, and the median age is 37 years. Fifty-four percent of patients are female. Among the 15 patients with available hospitalization information, 6 (40%) were hospitalized. No deaths have been reported.The outbreak can be visually described with a chart showing the number of people who became ill each day. This chart is called an epidemic curve or epi curve. Illnesses that occurred after May 22, 2010, might not yet be reported due to the time it takes between when a person becomes ill and when the illness is reported. This takes an average of 2 to 3 weeks. For more details, please see the Salmonella Outbreak Investigations: Timeline for Reporting Cases.
Investigation of the Outbreak
A widely distributed contaminated food product might cause illnesses across the United States. The identity of the contaminated product often is not readily apparent. In outbreaks like this one, identification of the contaminated product requires conducting detailed standardized interviews with persons who were ill. It may also require conducting interviews with non-ill members of the public ("controls") to get information about foods recently eaten and other exposures to compare with information from the ill persons. The investigation is often supplemented by laboratory testing of suspected products.
Beginning on June 14, 2010, CDC and public health officials in multiple states began conducting an epidemiologic study by comparing foods eaten by ill and well persons. As of June 18, information had been collected on 14 ill and 21 well persons. Preliminary analysis of this study suggests eating a Marie Callender’s frozen meal as a possible source of illness. Ill persons (86 percent) were significantly more likely than well persons (10 percent) to report eating a frozen meal. All ill persons (100 percent) who ate frozen meals reported eating a Marie Callender’s frozen meal. None (0 percent) of the well persons who ate a frozen meal reported eating a Marie Callender’s frozen meal. At this time there are insufficient data to implicate a specific frozen meal type. However, many of the ill persons have reported eating a Marie Callender’s cheesy chicken and rice frozen entrée in the week before becoming ill.
Today, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture Laboratory reported to CDC that it has isolated Salmonella Chester from an unopened package of Marie Callender’s Cheesy Chicken & Rice single-serve frozen entrée collected from a case patient. Subtyping of the Salmonella strain is under way.
This investigation is ongoing. CDC and state and local public health partners are continuing surveillance to identify new cases and identify the contaminated product or products that are causing illness. We will update the public on the progress of this investigation as information becomes available.
On June 17, 2010, ConAgra Foods announced a precautionary recall of Marie Callender’s Cheesy Chicken & Rice single-serve frozen entrees after being informed by the CDC of a possible association between this product and the outbreak of Salmonella Chester infections.
On June 17, 2010, USDA’s FSIS announced ConAgra’s recall.
Clinical Features/Signs and Symptoms
Most persons infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps 12-72 hours after infection. Infection is usually diagnosed by culture of a stool sample. The illness usually lasts from 4 to 7 days. Although most people recover without treatment, severe infections may occur. Infants, elderly persons, and those with weakened immune systems are more likely than others to develop severe illness. When severe infection occurs, Salmonella may spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and then to other body sites and can cause death unless the person is treated promptly with antibiotics.
More general information about Salmonella can be found under Salmonella FAQs.
Advice to Consumers
- Salmonella is sometimes present in raw foods (e.g., chicken, produce, and spices) which can be used as ingredients in not-ready-to-eat frozen dinners.
- Consumers should follow the instructions on the package label of the frozen dinner. Conventional ovens are better at cooking foods thoroughly. Microwave ovens vary in strength and tend to cook foods unevenly.
- If you choose to cook the frozen dinner using a microwave, be sure to:
- Cook the food for the time specified for your microwave’s wattage.
- Let the food “stand” for the stated time, so cooking can continue.
- Use a food thermometer to make sure that it is fully cooked to an internal temperature of 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
- Individuals who think they might have become ill from eating a Marie Callender’s frozen dinner should consult their health care providers.
- Consumers who have Marie Callender’s Cheesy Chicken & Rice single-serve frozen entrées in their freezer should discard or return the entrées to their retailer for a refund.
- Consumers are urged to read and follow the preparation instructions on the label of all frozen entrees. If the package says “Do Not Microwave,” consumers should follow that instruction and use a conventional oven. Consumers should use a food thermometer to make sure the entrees reach at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit.
- General Information: Salmonella
- Description of the Steps In a Foodborne Outbreak Investigation
- CDC's Role During a Multi-State Foodborne Outbreak Investigation
CDC's Role in Food Safety
As an agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), CDC leads federal efforts to gather data on foodborne illnesses, investigate foodborne illnesses and outbreaks, and monitor the effectiveness of prevention and control efforts. CDC is not a food safety regulatory agency but works closely with the food safety regulatory agencies, in particular with HHS's U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service within the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). CDC also plays a key role in building state and local health department epidemiology, laboratory, and environmental health capacity to support foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak response. Notably, CDC data can be used to help document the effectiveness of regulatory interventions.