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Eight Multistate Outbreaks of Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Small Turtles (Final Update)

Posted October 18, 2013 3:00 PM ET

These outbreaks appear to be over. However, small turtles continue to be an important cause of human Salmonella infections in the United States. More information about Salmonella from reptiles and amphibians and the steps people can take to reduce their risk of infection is available.

Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians

General Information: Salmonella

Digital Press Kit: Multistate Outbreaks of Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Small Turtles 

CDC Feature: Reptiles, Amphibians, and Salmonella 

Educational Poster (available in English, Spanish, French, and Chinese): 

Healthy Pets Healthy People

The Trouble with Turtles [PODCAST - 4:30 minutes]

Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine: Salmonella and turtle safety

Relevant MMWRs

Outbreak of Human Salmonella Paratyphi B var L(+) tartrate (+) Infections Associated with Pet Turtle Exposure—United States, 2011

Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Associated with Aquatic Frogs—United States, 2009

Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Associated with Pet Turtle Exposure—United States, 2008

Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections Associated with Exposure to Turtles—United States, 2007–2008

Turtle-Associated Salmonellosis in Humans—United States, 2006–2007

Salmonellosis Associated with Pet Turtles—Wisconsin and Wyoming, 2004

Reptile-Associated Salmonellosis—Selected States, 1998-2002

Reptile-Associated Salmonellosis—Selected States, 1996-1998

Lizard-Associated Salmonellosis—Utah

Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2011 [PDF - 1.33MB]

Appendix C: Hand-Washing Recommendations to Reduce Disease Transmission from Animals in Public Settings

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