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Vital Signs: Obesity Among Low-Income, Preschool-Aged Children — United States, 2008–2011

On August 6, 2013, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr).

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of obesity among U.S. preschoolers has doubled in recent decades. Childhood obesity increases the risk for adult obesity and is associated with negative health consequences. Trends in the state-specific prevalence of obesity among low-income U.S. preschool children have not been examined since 2008. State-specific obesity prevalence surveillance helps determine the need for and impact of state and local obesity prevention strategies.

Methods: Measured weight and height data from approximately 11.6 million low-income children aged 2–4 years from 40 states, the District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories who participated in the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System during 2008–2011 were used to estimate state obesity prevalence. Obesity was defined as having an age- and sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile, according to the 2000 CDC growth charts. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity were used to examine trends in the state-specific obesity prevalence.

Results: During 2008–2011, statistically significant downward trends in obesity prevalence were observed in 18 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Florida, Georgia, Missouri, New Jersey, South Dakota, and the U.S. Virgin Islands had the largest absolute decreases in obesity prevalence, each with a decrease of ≥1 percentage point. Twenty states and Puerto Rico experienced no significant change, and obesity prevalence increased significantly in three states.

Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice: Small but significant declines in obesity among low-income preschoolers were observed in 19 of 43 states/territories examined. Continued prevention efforts are needed to sustain and expand the implementation and evaluation of population-level interventions to prevent childhood obesity.

Introduction

Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicate that nationally the prevalence of obesity remains high among all youths, including preschool-aged children, however there was no statistically significant change in obesity prevalence between 2007–2008 and 2009–2010. During 2009–2010, the prevalence of obesity was 12.1% among U.S. children aged 2–5 years with higher rates among some subgroups including non-Hispanic black (18.9%) and Hispanic (16.2%) children (1). Childhood obesity is associated with negative physical and mental health consequences (2). Overweight or obese preschoolers are five times as likely as to become overweight or obese adults as their non-obese peers (3). Preventing obesity early in life is a public health priority to improve health across the lifespan.

National estimates of the prevalence of obesity describe the extent of the problem for the U.S. population. However, state-specific obesity prevalence estimates provide opportunities for state and local health departments to monitor progress in controlling and preventing obesity. In addition, state-specific estimates are important because there is variability among states in demographic and other factors that might influence obesity and appropriate prevention strategies and decision-making related to programmatic efforts, environmental supports, and policies might differ.

Limited studies are available on state-specific trends in obesity prevalence among young children. The few published reports focus on older school-aged children and adolescents (4–6) and use parent/child reports of height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI) (4,5). Other reports on young children (7,8)* have used data from CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS); one report showed that among 44 states/territories during 2003–2008, nine showed a significant decline in obesity, 24 showed significant increases, and 11 showed no statistically significant change (7). The prevalence of obesity among low-income preschool children remains high. In 2011, the prevalence of obesity for all contributors to the PedNSS was 14.4%, was approximately 4% points higher than in the early 1990s and varied considerably among states/territories. This report extends earlier PedNSS analyses (7,8) by examining the state-specific prevalence and trends of obesity during 2008–2011.

Methods

PedNSS is a state-based public health surveillance system that monitors the nutritional status of low-income children from birth through age 4 years. Data are primarily collected from participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). About 50% of low-income children eligible for WIC are enrolled (9), but data from other programs such as the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment program, and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau Title V program are also included. Not all WIC agencies submitted data to the PedNSS during 2008–2011 (9). Data were collected from children and their caregivers during routine visits to local public health clinics approximately twice per year. Children's heights and weights were directly measured by trained clinical staff using standardized protocols. All data were submitted electronically to CDC. One randomly selected clinical record per child, per year, was used in this study. Obesity was defined as having an age- and sex-specific BMI ≥95th percentile according to the 2000 CDC growth charts.§

This study included approximately 12.1 million children aged 2–4 years from 43 PedNSS contributors, including 40 states, the District of Columbia, and two U.S. territories (U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico) that consistently reported data annually to PedNSS and used consistent methodology during 2008–2011. Height, weight, and BMI data that were missing (n = 258,310; 2.1%), miscoded (n = 8,124; 0.1%), or biologically implausible (n = 285,572; 2.4%; e.g., height-for-age z-score <-5.0 or >3.0, weight-for-age z-score <-4.0 or >5.0, or BMI-for-age and sex z-score <-4.0 or >5.0) were excluded from all analyses, leaving an analytic sample of 11,590,087 low-income preschool children. The average sample size among states/territories across all years of study ranged from 2,516 to 294,209.

The state-specific prevalence of obesity among low-income preschoolers during 2008–2011 was calculated. To examine trends in the state-specific obesity prevalence during the study period, logistic regression models were used, adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to determine the estimated annual change in odds of obesity. To determine whether changes in obesity prevalence could be explained by socioeconomic status of participants, a secondary analysis was conducted that included household income as part of the adjusted model. AORs were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Compared with the 2008 study population, the 2011 study population was older and included a slightly smaller proportion of non-Hispanic whites and a slightly larger proportion of non-Hispanic blacks (Table 1).

Results

During 2008–2011, a total of 19 states/territories reported significant downward trends in obesity prevalence among low-income preschoolers (Figure 1). Among them, the largest decline in obesity prevalence was in the U.S. Virgin Islands (AOR = 0.92; CI = 0.87–0.97), where there was a decrease in the prevalence of obesity from 13.6% in 2008 to 11.0% in 2011, an absolute decrease of 2.6 percentage points (Table 2). In five additional states (Florida, Georgia, Missouri, New Jersey, and South Dakota) the absolute decrease in obesity prevalence from 2008 to 2011 was ≥1 percentage point. Across the 19 states/territories with significant downward trends, the absolute decrease in obesity prevalence from 2008 to 2011 ranged from 0.3 to 2.6 percentage points. The relative decreases in obesity prevalence among the 19 states/territories ranged from 1.8% to 19.1%.

An additional 21 states/territories experienced no significant trend in obesity prevalence. Three states experienced a significant upward trend in obesity prevalence. The absolute increase in obesity prevalence from 2008 to 2011 for the three states ranged from 0.6 to 0.7 percentage points. The relative increase in obesity prevalence among the three states ranged from 5.2% to 6.4%.

In a secondary analysis of the 34 states/territories that had complete data on household income, household income was added to the logistic regression model. Among these states/territories, significance changed for only one state. Montana went from no significant trend to a significant decrease in the prevalence of obesity (AOR = 0.97, CI = 0.94–1.00).

In 2011, the prevalence of obesity among states/territories in the study ranged from 9.2% to 17.9% (Table 2). Ten states/territories had an obesity prevalence ≥15% (Figure 2), with the highest prevalence in Puerto Rico (17.9%). Six states/territories had an obesity prevalence <12%. The lowest obesity prevalence was in Hawaii (9.2%).

Discussion

In recent years there have been small but significant decreases in childhood obesity. The finding that 19 states/territories experienced a decrease in obesity among low-income preschoolers, a vulnerable population, adds to recent findings from local data of low-income preschoolers (10,11) and studies observing decreases among children with higher socioeconomic status (SES) (12). The specific factors that might have contributed to the differential changes in obesity prevalence by state could not be readily identified. States likely differ by cultural and other factors that affect diet, activity, and weight as well as the implementation of policy and environmental interventions used to improve nutrition and physical activity. For example, reductions in obesity prevalence might reflect a combination of contributing factors, such as local and state initiatives that focus on the implementation of nutrition and physical activity standards for early care and education (ECE) programs (13) and efforts to improve healthier food options and physical activity offerings in communities (14). Federal policy changes such as the alignment of the WIC package of nutritious foods with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (15) might have led to improved diets among low-income preschool children and their families. Population-level changes in behavior such as increases in breastfeeding (16) also might have contributed to declines in obesity.

During the same period, national initiatives such as Let's Move,** reports such as the White House Childhood Obesity Task Force Report,†† and recommendations from groups including the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education, American Public Health Association, American Academy of Pediatrics (13), and the Institute of Medicine (17) and media coverage have drawn attention to childhood obesity by building awareness and identifying stakeholders and potential actions to address the problem. Parents, schools, ECE providers, health-care providers, business leaders, the faith community, and state and local officials are among the groups identified in expert recommendations as stakeholders in the prevention of early childhood obesity. Each stakeholder makes decisions that influence the nutrition and physical activity environments where children live, learn, and play.

State and local officials have a unique opportunity to bring together various stakeholders concerned about children's health. They can assist communities in conducting needs assessments, developing action plans, and launching initiatives aimed at increasing healthy eating and active living (18). State and local officials can support ECE providers by helping to identify and incorporate best practices for obesity prevention, including putting forth standards that promote healthy eating and physical activity (13), such as serving fruits and vegetables, limiting the regular consumption of sugary beverages (19), and providing more opportunities for physical activity, and reducing screen time. Officials also can help community groups and agencies identify or improve local play spaces to increase opportunities for physical activity (17,18) through efforts such as mapping, providing better access to recreational facilities, and promoting safety (19) in places where children can be physically active. Assisting local businesses and community groups in their support of families by educating them about healthful affordable food choices, providing point of decision prompts that promote healthy foods and beverages at the places they are purchased, providing opportunities for physical activity (17,18), increasing food store availability in underserved areas, and zoning for mixed land use (19) and improving access to safe, free drinking water in public places (18) are other ways that officials can help communities prevent childhood obesity. State and local officials also can engage communities in obesity prevention by leading or participating in coalitions (e.g., an obesity task force or food advisory council), and partnerships with groups in other sectors (18) like agriculture, retail, transportation, and economic development.

The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, PedNSS is limited to low-income children who participated in federal nutrition programs. These findings might not reflect the obesity prevalence and trends among all low-income U.S. preschool-aged children. In addition, the results might not be reflective of preschool-aged children of higher socioeconomic status who might have experienced more substantial declines in obesity prevalence (12). Second, this study included 43 states/territories that consistently collected PedNSS data during 2008–2011. Trends in other states/territories might differ. Finally, compared with 2008, the number of children in PedNSS was higher in subsequent years (approximately 2.7 million in 2008, 3.0 million in 2009, 3.0 million in 2010, and 2.9 million in 2011). This might have been caused, in part, by the economic downturn, which might have led to previously ineligible families becoming eligible for these nutrition programs. Whether or the degree to which these changes might have contributed to declines in obesity is unknown. As compared to the 2008 cohort, the 2011 cohort was slightly older and included a slightly smaller proportion of non-Hispanics whites and a slightly larger proportion of non-Hispanic blacks. Adjustments for these characteristics in logistical regression models might not have eliminated all confounding. Further adjustment for household income (for 34 states/territories with complete income data) however had little effect; one state went from no change to a significant decline.

Small decreases in the prevalence of obesity among low-income preschool children have been observed in certain states/territories. Continued prevention efforts remain necessary to ensure that this downward trend continues. State and local officials have an opportunity to lead these efforts through the continued development, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention initiatives and by leading partnerships with public and private sectors.

Reported by

Ashleigh L. May, PhD, Liping Pan, MD, Bettylou Sherry, PhD, Heidi M. Blanck, PhD, Deborah Galuska, PhD, Karen Dalenius, MPH, Barbara Polhamus, PhD, Laura Kettel-Khan, PhD, Laurence M. Grummer-Strawn, PhD, Div of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC. Corresponding contributor: Ashleigh L. May, amay@cdc.gov, 770-488-8062.

References

  1. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA 2012;307:483–90.
  2. Pulgaron ER. Childhood obesity: a review of increased risk for physical and psychological comorbidities. Clin Ther 2013;35:A18–32.
  3. Whitaker RC, Wright JA, Pepe MS, Seidel KD, Dietz WH. Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. N Engl J Med 1997;337:869–73.
  4. Singh GK, Kogan MD, van Dyck PC. Changes in state-specific childhood obesity and overweight prevalence in the United States from 2003 to 2007. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2010;164:598–607.
  5. CDC. Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2011. MMWR 2012;61(No. SS-4).
  6. Babey SH, Wolstein J, Diamant AL, Bloom A, Goldstein H. A patchwork of progress: changes in overweight and obesity among California 5th-, 7th-, and 9th-graders, 2005–2010. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research and California Center for Public Health Advocacy 2011.
  7. CDC. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children—United States, 1998–2008. MMWR 2009;58:769–73.
  8. Sherry B, Mei Z, Scanlon KS, Mokdad AH, Grummer-Strawn LM. Trends in state-specific prevalence of overweight and underweight in 2- through 4-year-old children from low-income families from 1989 through 2000. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:1116–24.
  9. Betson D, Martinez-Schiferl M, Giannarelli L, Zedlewski S. National and state-level estimates of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) eligibles and program reach, 2000–2009. US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of Research and Analysis; 2011. Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/ora/MENU/Published/WIC/FILES/WICEligibles2000-2009Vol1.pdf.
  10. CDC. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children—New York City and Los Angeles County, 2003–2011. MMWR 2013;
    62:17–22.
  11. Sekhobo JP, Edmunds LS, Reynolds DK, Dalenius K, Sharma A. Trends in prevalence of obesity and overweight among children enrolled in the New York State WIC Program, 2002–2007. Public Health Rep 2010;125:218–24.
  12. Wen X, Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman SL, Sherry B, Kleinman K, Taveras EM. Decreasing prevalence of obesity among young children in Massachusetts from 2004 to 2008. Pediatrics 2012;129:823–31.
  13. American Academy of Pediatrics, American Public Health Association, National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care and Early Education. Preventing childhood obesity in early care and education: selected standards from caring for our children: national health and safety performance standards; guidelines for early care and education programs. 3rd ed.; 2012.
  14. CDC. Overweight and obesity: state indicator reports. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2012. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/resources/reports.html.
  15. Food and Nutrition Service. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): revisions in the WIC food packages; interim rule. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service; 2007. Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/wic/regspublished/foodpackages-interimrule.htm.
  16. CDC. Progress in increasing breastfeeding and reducing racial/ethnic difference—United States, 2000–2008 births. MMWR 2013;62:77–80.
  17. Institute of Medicine. Accelerating progress in obesity prevention: solving the weight of the nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2012. Available at http://iom.edu/reports/2012/accelerating-progress-in-obesity-prevention.aspx.
  18. Institute of Medicine. Local government actions to prevent childhood obesity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2009. Aailable at http://www.iom.edu/reports/2009/local-government-actions-to-prevent-childhood-obesity.aspx.
  19. CDC. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR 2009;58(No. RR-7).

* Dalenius K BE, Smith B, Polhamus B, Grummer-Strawn L. Pediatric nutrition surveillance 2010 report. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2012.

CDC. Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance Sytem. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/pednss/pednss_tables/pdf/national_table12.pdf.

§ Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, et al. 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11 2002;(246). Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_11/sr11_246.pdf.

Additional information available at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/growthcharts/resources/biv-cutoffs.pdf.

** Additional information available at http://www.letsmove.gov/mayors-local-officials.

†† Additional information available at http://www.letsmove.gov/white-house-task-force-childhood-obesity-report-president.


Key Points

  • The prevalence of obesity declined slightly among low-income preschoolers in 19 of 43 states and territories during 2008–2011.
  • Obesity rates are high among preschool children in the United States. Approximately one child in eight aged 2–5 years is obese.
  • Overweight or obese preschoolers are five times as likely to become overweight or obese adults, compared with their normal weight peers. In older children and adolescents, obesity is associated with high cholesterol, high blood sugar, asthma, and mental health problems.
  • To continue the downward trend in obesity, continued communitywide action is needed. State and local officials can help prevent obesity in young children by 1) creating partnerships with community members such as civic leaders and child-care providers to make changes that promote healthy eating and active living; 2) making it easier for families with children to buy healthy, affordable foods and beverages in their neighborhood; and 3) providing opportunities for children to play safely through access to community parks and other recreation areas.
  • Additional information is available at http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns.

TABLE 1. Distribution of study population, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity — Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, United States, 2008 and 2011

Characteristic

2008

2011

p-value*

No.

(%)

No.

(%)

Age (yrs)

2

1,047,733

(38.1)

1,041,948

(36.2)

3

888,399

(32.3)

946,112

(32.9)

<0.001

4

811,701

(29.5)

889,408

(30.9)

Sex

Boys

1,386,995

(50.5)

1,456,503

(50.6)

0.001

Girls

1,360,838

(49.5)

1,420,965

(49.4)

Race/Ethnicity

Non-Hispanic, white

972,628

(36.9)

989,639

(36.1)

Non-Hispanic, black

532,968

(20.2)

572,159

(20.9)

Hispanic

1,030,325

(39.1)

1,069,255

(39.0)

<0.001

American Indian/Alaska Native

24,362

(0.9)

25,224

(0.9)

Asian/Pacific Islander

77,872

(2.9)

85,475

(3.1)

* p-value of chi-square test for the difference in the distribution of the demographic characteristics from 2008 to 2011.


TABLE 2. Estimated annual change in odds of obesity among low-income children aged 2–4 years, by state/territory — Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, United States, 2008–2011*

State/Territory

2008

2009

2010

2011

Crude OR

(95% CI)

AOR

(95% CI)

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Alabama

56,813

13.8

60,572

14.4

65,914

14.1

67,246

14.1

1.01

(1.00–1.02)

0.99

(0.98–1.00)

Arkansas

38,591

13.9

42,270

14.2

32,615

14.1

42,455

14.2

1.01

(1.00–1.02)

1.01

(0.99–1.02)

Arizona

75,338

14.6

85,020

14.3

87,897

14.2

86,516

14.5

1.00

(0.99–1.00)

1.00

(0.99–1.01)

California

301,643

17.3

332,663

17.0

282,216

17.3

260,314

16.8

0.99

(0.99–1.00)

0.99§

(0.99–1.00)§

Colorado

43,476

9.4

51,659

9.0

52,292

9.1

27,467

10.0

1.02

(1.00–1.03)

1.02§

(1.00–1.04)§

Connecticut

25,623

15.5

28,432

16.0

28,401

15.8

27,561

15.8

1.00

(0.99–1.02)

1.00

(0.98–1.01)

District of Columbia

6,195

13.3

6,742

13.6

6,954

13.7

6,940

13.1

1.00

(0.96–1.03)

0.97

(0.94–1.00)

Florida

209,671

14.1

238,542

13.7

242,399

13.4

240,022

13.1

0.97

(0.97–0.98)

0.97§

(0.96–0.97)§

Georgia

124,533

14.8

134,173

14.2

136,379

13.5

138,622

13.2

0.96

(0.95–0.96)

0.95§

(0.95–0.96)§

Hawaii

16,106

9.3

17,252

9.3

17,827

9.1

17,819

9.2

0.99

(0.97–1.02)

0.99

(0.97–1.01)

Iowa

33,548

15.1

36,225

15.0

35,783

14.7

34,327

14.4

0.98

(0.97–0.99)

0.98§

(0.97–0.99)§

Idaho

20,081

12.3

22,620

11.9

22,973

11.4

22,238

11.5

0.97

(0.95–0.99)

0.97§

(0.95–0.99)§

Illinois

121,608

14.7

133,023

14.6

135,408

14.6

132,671

14.7

1.00

(0.99–1.01)

1.00

(0.99–1.01)

Indiana

66,499

14.5

75,671

14.3

78,634

14.2

73,247

14.3

1.00

(0.99–1.00)

0.99

(0.98–1.00)

Kansas

34,352

13.3

36,956

13.2

37,838

13.0

37,419

12.7

0.98

(0.97–1.00)

0.98§

(0.96–0.99)§

Kentucky

62,832

15.7

68,450

15.8

75,189

15.6

33,008

15.5

0.99

(0.98–1.01)

0.99

(0.98–1.00)

Massachusetts

59,297

16.7

63,567

16.8

60,433

16.1

61,094

16.4

0.99

(0.98–1.00)

0.98§

(0.97–0.99)§

Maryland

54,866

15.7

62,194

15.8

63,951

15.7

64,773

15.3

0.99

(0.98–1.00)

0.98§

(0.97–0.99)§

Michigan

103,523

13.9

114,489

13.7

106,019

13.3

115,608

13.2

0.98

(0.97–0.99)

0.97§

(0.97–0.98)§

Minnesota

65,607

13.4

68,997

13.1

68,594

12.7

70,353

12.6

0.98

(0.97–0.99)

0.97§

(0.96–0.98)§

Missouri

60,908

13.9

60,150

13.9

67,547

13.6

67,650

12.9

0.97

(0.96–0.98)

0.97§

(0.96–0.98)§

Mississippi

44,807

14.6

51,741

13.9

52,112

13.7

47,494

13.9

0.98

(0.97–0.99)

0.98§

(0.96–0.99)§

Montana

10,428

12.4

10,105

12.5

8,958

12.2

10,681

11.7

0.98

(0.95–1.00)

0.98

(0.95–1.00)

North Carolina

96,381

15.7

104,323

15.2

105,392

15.5

103,565

15.4

1.00

(0.99–1.00)

0.99

(0.99–1.00)

North Dakota

6,551

13.8

6,968

14.1

6,836

14.1

6,665

13.1

0.98

(0.95–1.01)

0.99

(0.95–1.02)

Nebraska

20,658

13.9

20,811

14.2

22,194

13.8

22,136

14.3

1.01

(0.99–1.02)

1.00

(0.99–1.02)

New Hampshire

8,082

15.5

8,963

14.4

8,621

14.2

8,219

14.6

0.98

(0.95–1.00)

0.97§

(0.94–0.99)§

New Jersey

68,163

17.9

75,191

18.4

78,181

17.3

77,476

16.6

0.97

(0.96–0.97)

0.96§

(0.95–0.97)§

New Mexico

22,295

12.0

31,433

12.0

31,043

11.7

30,269

11.3

0.98

(0.96–0.99)

0.97§

(0.96–0.99)§

Nevada

23,348

12.9

28,159

13.9

32,080

13.6

33,427

12.7

0.99

(0.97–1.00)

0.99

(0.98–1.01)

New York

209,713

14.6

224,130

14.4

224,243

14.5

229,291

14.3

1.00

(0.99–1.00)

0.99§

(0.99–1.00)§

Ohio

125,011

12.2

130,792

12.3

128,754

12.4

121,624

12.4

1.01

(1.00–1.01)

1.00

(0.99–1.01)

Oregon

49,193

14.7

52,713

15.0

54,150

15.1

54,212

14.9

1.00

(0.99–1.02)

1.01

(1.00–1.02)

Pennsylvania

111,767

11.5

119,134

12.0

117,337

12.0

119,812

12.2

1.02

(1.01–1.03)

1.02§

(1.01–1.03)§

Puerto Rico

99,828

17.9

100,313

18.1

89,438

18.3

89,463

17.9

1.00

(0.99–1.01)

1.00

(0.99–1.01)

Rhode Island

11,466

16.2

12,456

16.2

12,922

15.5

12,644

16.6

1.00

(0.98–1.02)

1.00

(0.98–1.02)

South Dakota

9,125

16.2

9,705

16.4

10,106

16.1

10,312

15.2

0.97

(0.95–1.00)

0.97§

(0.95–1.00)§

Tennessee

69,015

13.5

71,914

14.0

71,349

14.5

69,276

14.2

1.02

(1.01–1.03)

1.02§

(1.01–1.03)§

U.S. Virgin Islands

2,339

13.6

2,587

11.9

2,587

11.2

2,552

11.0

0.92

(0.88–0.98)

0.92§

(0.87–0.97)§

Vermont

7,009

13.3

7,051

13.2

6,921

12.2

6,168

12.9

0.98

(0.95–1.01)

0.98

(0.95–1.01)

Washington

92,980

14.4

104,389

14.4

105,886

14.4

106,346

14.0

0.99

(0.98–1.00)

0.99§

(0.98–1.00)§

Wisconsin

55,875

13.6

60,280

13.7

59,975

14.1

58,745

14.0

1.01

(1.00–1.02)

1.01

(1.00–1.02)

West Virginia

22,689

13.5

23,739

13.4

23,205

13.7

22,581

14.0

1.02

(1.00–1.03)

1.02

(1.00–1.03)

Abbreviations: OR = odds ratio; AOR = adjusted odds ratio; CI = confidence interval.

* Includes 43 states and territories with consistent data during 2008–2011.

Estimated annual change in odds of obesity, calculated from logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity.

§ Statistically significant at p<0.05; some 95% CIs include 1.00 because of rounding.


FIGURE 1. Decreases and increases* in obesity§ prevalence from 2008 to 2011 among low-income preschool-aged children — Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, United States

The figure above is a U.S. map showing the changes in obesity prevalence among low-income preschoolers from 2008 to 2011 in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and two territories. A total of 19 states/territories reported significant downward trends in obesity prevalence. The largest percentage point decrease in obesity prevalence was in the U.S. Virgin Islands, where there was a decrease in the prevalence of obesity from 13.6% in 2008 to 11.0% in 2011.

* Trends assessed by logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity.

Annual decreases and increases in obesity are statistically significant at p<0.05.

§ Obesity defined as having an age- and sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile, according to the 2000 CDC growth charts.

Alternate Text: The figure above is a U.S. map showing the changes in obesity prevalence among low-income preschoolers from 2008 to 2011 in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and two territories. A total of 19 states/territories reported significant downward trends in obesity prevalence. The largest percentage point decrease in obesity prevalence was in the U.S. Virgin Islands, where there was a decrease in the prevalence of obesity from 13.6% in 2008 to 11.0% in 2011.


FIGURE 2. Prevalence of obesity among low-income, preschool-aged children — Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, United States, 2011

The figure above is a U.S. map showing the prevalence of obesity in 2011 among low-income preschoolers in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and two territories. In 2011, the prevalence of obesity among the states/territories ranged from 9.2% to 17.9%. Ten states/territories had an obesity prevalence ≥15%, with the highest prevalence in Puerto Rico (17.9%). Six states/territories had an obesity prevalence <12%. The lowest obesity prevalence was in Hawaii (9.2%).

* Obesity defined as having an age- and sex-specific body mass index ≥95th percentile, according to the 2000 CDC growth charts.

Alternate Text: The figure above is a U.S. map showing the prevalence of obesity in 2011 among low-income preschoolers in 40 states, the District of Columbia, and two territories. In 2011, the prevalence of obesity among the states/territories ranged from 9.2% to 17.9%. Ten states/territories had an obesity prevalence ≥15%, with the highest prevalence in Puerto Rico (17.9%). Six states/territories had an obesity prevalence <12%. The lowest obesity prevalence was in Hawaii (9.2%).



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