Section 3: Implement Interventions to Improve Vision and Eye Health

Effective interventions have been developed to promote vision and eye health across states or local communities.1–3 This section of the toolkit provides an overview of recommendations and guidelines related to vision and eye health. It also offers examples of evidence-based and promising interventions that can be used in a variety of settings to prevent vision impairment and promote eye health.

Things to Consider Before Implementing an Intervention

  • Understand the needs of your community or target population. Before you implement any public health intervention, you will need to assess the status of vision and eye health in your community or target population. See Section 1 for information on how to conduct this assessment.
  • Identify existing assets and resources. Interventions require resources. Before proposing a new intervention, take inventory of the existing assets in your community and determine whether some of them can be used to support your intervention. For example, try to use existing partnerships and relationships to obtain free or discounted vision screening services, eyeglasses, or transportation for your target population. Determine and assess the availability of resources (e.g., staff, funding) that will be needed for your intervention.
  • Integrate vision and eye health interventions into other chronic disease programs, as appropriate. Vision health is a public health issue that is linked to other chronic conditions. To avoid duplicating efforts, collaborate with other public health and chronic disease programs, including those that address injury and fall prevention, diabetes, cardiovascular health, school health, and healthy aging. See Section 2 for information on how to form partnerships to support your efforts.

Additional Pages In This Section

  1. Lake A, Browne JL, Abraham C, et al. A tailored intervention to promote uptake of retinal screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes – an intervention mapping approach. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(396). doi: icon.
  2. Sapru S, Berktold J, Crews JE, et al. Applying RE-AIM to evaluate two community-based programs designed to improve access to eye care for those at high-risk for glaucoma. Eval Program Plann. 2017;65:40–46.
  3. Weiss D, Casten RJ, Leiby BE, et al. Effect of behavioral intervention on dilated fundus examination rates in older African American individuals with diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(9):1005–1012.
  4. National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine. Making Eye Health a Population Health Imperative: Vision for Tomorrow. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2016.
  5. Virgili G, Acosta R, Bentley SA, Giacomelli G, Allcock C, Evans JR. Reading aids for adults with low vision. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;4:Cd003303. doi: icon.
  6. Acton JH, Molik B, Court H, Margrain TH. Effect of a home visit- based low vision rehabilitation intervention on visual function outcomes: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57(15):6662–6667.