Suicide: Prevention Strategies
Suicide is a serious but preventable public health problem that can have lasting harmful effects on individuals, families, and communities. While its causes are complex, the goals of suicide prevention are simple—reduce factors that increase risk and increase factors that promote resilience or coping. With a public health approach, prevention occurs at all levels of society—from the individual, family, and community levels to the broader social environment. Effective prevention strategies are needed to promote awareness of suicide while also promoting prevention, resilience, and a commitment to social change.
A public health approach to suicide prevention may be undertaken using the following resources:
- Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policies, Programs, and Practices. [6MB, 62Pages, 508]
This technical package is a collection of strategies that represents the best available evidence to help states and communities prevent suicide. The technical package includes 7 strategies with examples of specific approaches for each strategy. It also provides a summary of the evidence for each approach in preventing suicide or its associated risk factors.
- National Strategy for Suicide Prevention
This revised national strategy emphasizes the role every American can play in protecting their friends, family members, and colleagues from suicide. It also provides guidance for schools, businesses, health systems, clinicians and many other sectors that takes into account nearly a decade of research and other advancements in the field since the last strategy was published.
- Strategic Direction for the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior: Promoting Individual, Family, and Community Connectedness to Prevent Suicidal Behavior [507KB, 12Pages, 508]
This document describes a five-year vision for the CDC’s work to prevent fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior. Our key strategy is promoting individual, family, and community connectedness.
- State Suicide Prevention Planning: A CDC Research Brief [4MB, 16Pages, 508]
This document summarizes the results of a CDC research study conducted to describe the key ingredients of successful state-based suicide prevention planning.
- Programs and Practices: Suicide Prevention Resource Center
The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC), in collaboration with the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention, maintains the Programs and Practices. This registry, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, identifies, reviews, and disseminates information about best practices that address specific objectives of the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention.
- SAMHSA’s National Registry of Evidence-Based Programs and Practices
The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have been reviewed and rated by independent reviewers.
- Wilcox HC, Kharrazi H, Wilson RF, Musci RJ, Susukida R, Gharghabi F, Zhang A, Wissow L, Robinson KA. (2016). Data Linkage Strategies to Advance Youth Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review for a National Institute of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop. Ann Intern Med,165(11):779-785
- Brent D. (2016). Prevention Programs to Augment Family and Child Resilience Can Have Lasting Effects on Suicidal Risk. Suicide Life Threat Behav, Suppl 1:S39-47. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12257. Review.
- Calear AL, Christensen H, Freeman A, Fenton K, Busby Grant J, van Spijker B, Donker T. (2016). A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry,25(5):467-82.
- Hom MA, Stanley IH, Joiner TE Jr. (2015). Evaluating factors and interventions that influence help-seeking and mental health service utilization among suicidal individuals: A review of the literature. Clin Psychol, 40:28-39.
- Joshi SV, Hartley SN, Kessler M, Barstead M. (2015). School-based suicide prevention: content, process, and the role of trusted adults and peers. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am,24(2):353-70.
- Batterham PJ, Ftanou M, Pirkis J, Brewer JL, Mackinnon AJ, Beautrais A, Fairweather-Schmidt AK, Christensen H. (2015). A systematic review and evaluation of measures for suicidal ideation and behaviors in population-based research. Psychol Assess,27(2):501-512.
- Harrod CS, Goss CW, Stallones L, DiGuiseppi C. (2014). Interventions for primary prevention of suicide in university and other post-secondary educational settings. Cochrane Database Syst, Rev, (10)
- Harlow AF, Bohanna I, Clough A. (2014). A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth. Crisis, 35(5):310-21.
- Katz C, Bolton SL, Katz LY, Isaak C, Tilston-Jones T, Sareen J; Swampy Cree Suicide Prevention Team. (2013). A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs. Depress Anxiety, 30(10):1030-45
- Brown GK, Green KL. (2014). A review of evidence-based follow-up care for suicide prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 47(3S2):S209–S215.
- O’Neil ME, Peterson K, Low A, Carson S, Denneson LM, Haney E, Shiroma P and Kansagara D. (2012). Suicide Prevention Interventions and Referral/Follow-up Services: A Systematic Review. [1.36MB, 144Pages, Print Only] VA-ESP Project #05-225.