STD Health Equity
Health equity is achieved when everyone has an equal chance to be healthy regardless of their background. This includes a person’s race, ethnicity, income, gender, religion, sexual identity, and disability.1
Research shows that there are higher rates of STDs among some racial or ethnic minority groups compared to whites.2.3 It is important to understand that these higher rates are not caused by ethnicity or heritage, but by social conditions that are more likely to affect minority groups. Factors such as poverty, large gaps between the rich and the poor, fewer jobs, and low education levels can make it more difficult for people to stay sexually healthy.4
- People who cannot afford basic needs may have trouble accessing quality sexual health services.5
- Many racial/ethnic minorities may distrust the health care system, fearing discrimination from doctors and other health care providers.6 This could create negative feelings around getting tested and treated for STDs.
- In communities with higher STD rates, sexually active people may be more likely to get an STD because they have greater odds of selecting a partner who is infected.7,8
Learning more about STDs and the factors that sustain these epidemics is a first step in empowering affected communities to improve their health status and advance health equity.
Health Disparities – Information and resources from CDC’s Office of Minority Health and Health Equity.
Data & Statistics
10 Ways STDs Impact Women Differently from Men – Fact sheet explaining why women are disproportionately affected by STDs.
CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report – Analysis of trends in health disparities and inequalities for a range of health issues.
Indian Health Surveillance – STDs – STD statistics and trends among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN).
- Improving STD Prevention and Care through Partnerships – Summary of a one-day meeting to discuss STI testing & care delivery in the Medicaid program.
- Health Affairs Special Issue on Racism and Healthexternal icon
- U.S. Surgeon General’s National Prevention StrategyExternalexternal icon – Recommendations from the Surgeon General on health and wellbeing priority areas.
1 The Community Guide: The Guide to Community Preventive Services. Community Preventive Services Task Force. (Page last updated: April 25, 2013) http://www.thecommunityguide.org/healthequity/External
2 Hogben M, Leichliter JS. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(12 Suppl):S13-8.
3 Cunningham PJ, Cornelius LJ. Access to ambulatory care for American Indians and Alaska Natives; the relative importance of personal and community resources. Soc Sci Med. 1995:40(3): 393-407.
4 Gonzalez JS, Hendriksen ES, Collins EM, Duran RE, Safren SA. Latinos and HIV/AIDS: examining factors related to disparity and identifying opportunities for psychosocial intervention research. AIDS Behav. 2009:13:582-602.
5 Institute of Medicine. The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted DiseasesExternal. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.
6 Wiehe SE, Rosenman MB, Wang J, Katz BP, Fortenberry D. Chlamydia screening among young women: individual- and provider-level differences in testing. Pediatrics. 2011;127(2): e336-44.
7 Hogben M, Leichliter JS. Social determinants and sexually transmitted disease disparities. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35(12 Suppl):S13-8.
8 Laumann EO, Youm Y. Racial/ethnic group differences in the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the United States: a network explanation. Sex Transm Dis. 1999;26(5):250-61.