PRAMS Zika Postpartum Emergency Response Study (PRAMS-ZPER) in Puerto Rico
Phase 1: PRAMS-ZPER 1.0
Overview and Methods
The PRAMS-ZPER 1.0 hospital-based survey was conducted from August to December 2016. The study used methods modified from PRAMS to do in-person data collection in maternity hospitals. Field staff visited women in their hospital rooms 24 to 36 hours after delivery and invited them to complete a self-administered survey either on a paper form or on a tablet. Among 2,933 selected women, 2,364 completed the survey for an overall response rate of 81%.
The PRAMS-ZPER 1.0 hospital-based questionnaire covered topics related to maternal knowledge and concern about Zika virus infection, discussions with health care providers during pregnancy about Zika virus, testing for Zika virus during pregnancy, use of measures to prevent mosquito-borne transmission of Zika during pregnancy, and use of measures to prevent sexual transmission of Zika during pregnancy.
Results from the PRAMS-ZPER 1.0 hospital-based 1.0 survey can be found on—
- D’Angelo DV, Salvesen von Essen B, Lamias MJ, Shulman H, Hernandez-Virella WI, et al. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy – Puerto Rico 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017; 66(22);574–578.
- Preventing Zika Virus in Puerto Rico: The Provider Role
- Preventing Zika Virus in Puerto Rico: Maternal Use of Protective Measures
A subset of women who participated in the PRAMS-ZPER Hospital-based Survey 1.0 was randomly selected and re-contacted by telephone 8 to 10 months after delivery to learn about their experiences after hospital discharge. Of 1,535 women selected for the follow-up, 1,175 completed the survey for an overall response rate of 77%.
Phase 2: PRAMS-ZPER 2.0
Overview and Methods
The second PRAMS-ZPER in-hospital survey was conducted from November to December 2017. The study methods were similar to the first study with a few modifications to adjust for the post-hurricane situation in the Puerto Rico following Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Some adjustments included reducing the sample size and eliminating the 24- to 36-hour waiting period before contact. Among 1,545 selected women, 1,482 completed the survey for an overall response rate of 96%.
The separate father/partner survey was available for completion by infants’ fathers (or mothers’ partner). Partners were approached in the hospital following the birth of their infant during the same timeframe as the mothers. Among 1,545 eligible partners, 1,182 completed the survey for an overall response rate of 77%.
The maternal questionnaire was similar to the questionnaire from PRAMS-ZPER 1.0. In addition to the original questions, more detailed information about testing during pregnancy was captured on the 2.0 version of the survey.
The partner questionnaire covered topics related to knowledge and concern about Zika virus infection, interactions with health care providers, measures to prevent mosquito-borne and sexual transmission of Zika during the pregnancy of their partner, and involvement in the pregnancy.
To address the need for further information about Zika virus prevention and newborn care for new mothers and fathers, the Puerto Rico Department of Health developed a short educational presentation to share with women and their partners who were eligible for the study.
The Puerto Rico Department of Health field staff workers who administered the survey also provided the educational presentation following completion of the survey. Sampled individuals who elected not to participate in the survey could also receive the educational presentation, if interested.
For more information about the educational presentation, contact the PRAMS project in the Puerto Rico Department of Health’s Division of Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health.
PRAMS-ZPER Telephone Follow-up Survey 2.0—Spring 2018
The second PRAMS-ZPER telephone follow-up survey was conducted from February to March of 2018. All women who responded to the PRAMS-ZPER 2.0 hospital-based questionnaire were re-contacted and invited to participate. Among 1,482 eligible women, 1,200 completed the survey for an overall response rate of 81%. There was no telephone follow-up survey for partners.
To request PRAMS-ZPER data for analysis, please follow instructions to submit a PRAMS proposal found on the PRAMS For Researchers web page.
Salvesen von Essen B, Kortsmit K, D’Angelo DV, Warner L, Smith RA, et al. Opportunities to Address Men’s Health During the Perinatal Period-Puerto Rico, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;69(5152):1638-1641.
Salvesen von Essen B, Kortsmit K, Warner L, D’Angelo DV, Shulman HB, et al. Preventing Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy, Puerto Rico, USA, 2016. Emerg Infect Dis 2019;25(11):2115-2119.
D’Angelo DV, Salvesen von Essen B, Lamias MJ, Shulman H, Hernandez-Virella WI, et al. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy – Puerto Rico 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017; 66(22);574–578.