1990s - 2000s CLPPP Timeline

Highlights from CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (CLPPP)

Review these timelines for a history of major scientific and public health events in childhood lead poisoning prevention.

2020s | 2010s | 2000s | 1990s | 1980s | 1970s

2000s
1990s
  • Timelineicon
    Child's finger giving blood through a finger prick.
    1998 - 2010
    • Yearly appropriated funding levels for CDC Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (CLPPP) averaged $36 million through the mid-2000s. CDC recommended targeted screening and focused on improving surveillance.
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    Old house with chipped paint.
    1997
    • CDC recommended targeted screening efforts to focus on high-risk neighborhoods and children based on age of housing and sociodemographic risk factors.
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    Image of an adult putting gas in a car.
    1996
    • The ban on leaded gasoline for most motor vehicles became effective.
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    table of canned foods with no labels.
    1995
    • A total ban on food cans with lead solder, including imported cans, became effective.
    • CDC collaborated with the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) to develop a national surveillance system for monitoring blood lead levels (BLLs) in the United States, and elevated BLLs became the first noninfectious condition to be notifiable at the national level.
    • CDC CLPPP began collecting blood lead surveillance data on children younger than 16 years from state health departments. Awarded $29 million in extramural awards.
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    Young child giving blood.
    1993
    • The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) adopted CDC’s universal screening requirements for children receiving Medicaid benefits.
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    Gloved hands cupping soil
    1992
    • Title X of the Housing and Community Development Act (Residential Lead-Paint Hazard Reduction Act) expanded lead-based hazards to include lead-contaminated dust and soil and shifted response to a preventative strategy.
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    1991
    • The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning that set forth a comprehensive agenda to eliminate childhood lead poisoning.
    • CDC began promoting primary prevention activities, such as community-wide environmental interventions and education and nutritional campaigns, to lower children’s BLLs to <10 µg/dL.
    • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Lead and Copper Rule to minimize lead and copper in drinking water and established a maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) of zero for lead.
    • CDC recommended screening by blood lead testing for virtually all children aged 1 to 5 years and that all children younger than 2 years be screened at least once.
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    Gloved hands holding a vial showing label for Lead (Pb) Test
    1991-2012
    • CDC’s “blood lead level of concern” was defined as children with BLLs ≥ 10 µg/dL.
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    1991-1997
    • CDC CLPPP received full funding which supported a comprehensive program that recommended universal screening and provided guidance on case management.
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    Polluting clouds of exhaust fumes rise in the air
    1990
    • The Clean Air Act Amendments issued a final ban on leaded gasoline for most motor vehicle use.