How Restaurants Prepare Eggs
Increased efforts are needed to reduce the spread of germs linked to eggs in restaurants. Public health food-safety regulators should
- Tell restaurants how to prepare eggs in ways that reduce the risk for spreading germs.
- Encourage restaurants to use pasteurized eggs.
- Focus restaurant inspections and outbreak investigations related to eggs on the high-risk practices seen in this study.
Restaurants that serve eggs should review their preparation practices and consider changes to reduce the risk for spreading germs. Specifically, these restaurants should
- Consider using pasteurized eggs.
- Not pool eggs.
- Keep uncooked eggs at the proper temperature.
- Properly clean utensils and equipment used with eggs.
More research is needed to find what prevents restaurants from safely preparing eggs and from using pasteurized eggs. Food safety researchers could do this research. Restaurant managers also can review their practices and kitchens for barriers to safe egg preparation.
Why This Study Was Done
Thousands of illnesses related to germs in eggs have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most of these illnesses have been linked to restaurants. Thus, it is important to collect data that will describe restaurant practices for egg handling that pose foodborne illness risks. This can help us address these risky practices so we can prevent illnesses.
What the Study Described
This study described practices restaurants use to prepare eggs. It focused on practices that allow the growth or spread of germs in or on eggs. Four of these practices are described below.
- Improper cooking of eggs can allow germs to survive cooking. Eggs should be cooked to at least 160°F.
- Mixing eggs together (pooling) can allow one or more infected eggs to contaminate a larger batch of eggs. The larger batch can then be a source for germs and can lead to multiple illnesses or contamination of other food.
- Storing uncooked eggs at improper temperatures can allow germ growth in or on eggs. Uncooked eggs should be stored at or below 41°F.
- Improper cleaning of utensils and equipment can allow for contamination. Germs from uncooked eggs can transfer from utensils and equipment to other kitchen surfaces.
Eggs that are pooled, stored above 41°F, or prepared with improperly cleaned utensils but are then cooked properly are less likely to cause foodborne illness. But these three practices can lead to risks for contamination that proper cooking cannot solve. For example, a whisk used in a batch of eggs infected with germs and then not properly cleaned can spread germs to foods that may not be cooked, such as salad dressing, or to other kitchen surfaces.
When eggs are not pasteurized, these practices are more problematic. Pasteurization reduces the germs in eggs, making them less likely to cause foodborne illness even when they are prepared improperly.
What the Study Found
EHS-Net found that high-risk egg-preparation practices, such as improper storage of eggs before cooking, pooling of eggs, and improper cleaning of utensils, were common in restaurants.
Description of Egg-Preparation Practices
- 98% of egg dishes were properly cooked at or above 160°F.
- 78% of restaurants said that they sometimes served undercooked eggs such as soft or runny fried eggs.
- 80% of restaurants used unpasteurized eggs.
- 54% of restaurants pooled eggs. (Restaurants said they kept improperly pooled eggs for an average of 4 to 6 hours.)
- 26% of restaurants improperly stored uncooked eggs above 41°F.
- 9% of uncooked eggs in restaurants were improperly kept above 41°F.
- 42% of restaurants said they improperly washed and sanitized utensils used to prepare eggs. (Utensils were washed and sanitized less than once in a 4-hour period.)
Factors Related to Egg-Preparation Practices
- Restaurant chains and franchises used pasteurized eggs to prepare egg dishes more than independently owned restaurants did.
- Food-safety practices were similar whether restaurants had a food-safety certified manager or not.
This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net). EHS-Net is a federally funded collaboration of federal, state, and local environmental health specialists and epidemiologists working to better understand the environmental causes of foodborne illness.
Prevalence of High-Risk Egg-Preparation Practices in Restaurants That Prepare Breakfast Egg Entrees: An EHS-Net Study pdf icon[PDF – 178 KB] (scientific article this plain language summary is based on)
How Restaurants Prepare Eggs pdf icon[PDF – 361 KB] (fact sheet version of this page)
Egg-Handling Practices Study (study information)
More EHS-Net publications by Study Topic