Anthropometric/Anthropometry: the science that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human body.

Adiposity: the amount of fat in the body, expressed either as total fat mass (in kg) or the fraction (percentage) of total body fat.

Dual energy x-ray asorptiometry (DXA): a relatively new technology to directly measure body composition. DXA uses two x-ray energies to measure body fat, muscle, and bone mineral; considered more accurate and valid than underwater weighing.

Height: also referred to as stature; distance from the crown of the head to the surface on which the individual is standing; measured when the child/adolescent is not wearing shoes.

Hyperlipidemia: a general term for elevated concentrations of any or all of the lipids in plasma, e.g., hypercholesterolemia; a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Lipids: a family of compounds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols.

Lipoprotein: a diverse class of particles containing varying amounts of triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein that solubilize lipids for blood transport.

Overweight: describes excess body weight; preferred term for describing excess body weight in children and adolescents.

Z-score: in a standard normal distribution, the z-score represents the number of standard deviations away from the population mean. In other words, it indicates the degree to which an individual’s measurement deviates from what is expected for that individual.