Articles About FASDs
Use of Other Substances is Common Among Pregnant Women Who Report Alcohol Use
In a 2020 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report article, CDC scientists found that about 10% of pregnant women reported current alcohol use. The use of other substances was common among pregnant women who reported alcohol use—about 40% reported current use of one or more other substances.
Advise about Risky Alcohol Use
Most adults who drink at risky levels and were asked about their alcohol use during checkups were not advised to drink less, according to a new CDC study.
Neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure
Report to help providers care for children with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.
Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age – United States, 2011-2013
1 in 10 pregnant women aged 18-44 years reports consuming alcohol and about 1 in 33 reports binge drinking in the past 30 days. This means that about one third of pregnant women who consume alcohol engage in binge drinking.
Prevalence and characteristics of women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy
Many women in the United States are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including those who are trying to become pregnant, because they continue drinking alcohol even after they have stopped using contraception (birth control).
Understanding and improving health messages about alcohol and pregnancy
The American Journal of Health Education published a study looking at women’s knowledge and beliefs about alcohol use and its risks during pregnancy, the role others play in influencing women’s behaviors, and women’s sources of health information to understand this issue.
Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age – United States, 2006-2010
The report, Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age – United States, 2006–2010, describes findings from the BRFSS examining any alcohol use and binge drinking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (18–44 years) in the U.S. from 2006 to 2010.
Low to Moderate Alcohol Use During Pregnancy and the Risk of Specific Neurodevelopmental Effects in Five-Year-Old Children
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published five papers from the Lifestyle During Pregnancy Study which examined three specific neurodevelopmental outcomes in five-year-old children whose mothers reported drinking low to moderate amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.
The effects of alcohol use during pregnancy and later developmental outcomes: An analysis of previous studies
The journal Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research has published a meta-analysis of multiple studies examining how drinking patterns of women during pregnancy can affect the development of their children.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Resources for Prevention and Care
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person who was exposed to alcohol before birth. FASDs have lifelong effects, including problems with behavior and learning as well as physical problems. FASDs are preventable if a developing baby is not exposed to alcohol. CDC and its partners have resources to help prevent alcohol use during pregnancy and provide care for children with FASDs and their families.
Living with FASD: Brenna
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are physical, behavioral, and intellectual disabilities that last a lifetime. Brenna and her mother, Heather, share Brenna’s story.
(Published: April 1, 2022)
Alcohol use and binge drinking among pregnant people in the United States
In a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), CDC researchers found that nearly 1 in 7 pregnant people reported drinking alcohol and about 1 in 20 reported binge drinking in the past 30 days. Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause birth defects and developmental disabilities known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and might increase the risk for miscarriage and stillbirth. Screening for alcohol use combined with brief counseling by primary care providers, integration of mental health services, improved access to care, and community-based interventions might reduce alcohol use during pregnancy and the risk for poor pregnancy and birth outcomes.
Resources to Address Alcohol and Polysubstance Exposure During Pregnancy
Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and a range of lifelong birth defects and developmental disabilities. These disabilities are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Research suggests that the use of more than one substance, also known as polysubstance use, during pregnancy is common. Increasing practices to prevent substance use during pregnancy can help improve the health of individuals and their children. CDC has resources that can help providers put these practices into place.
(Published April 5, 2021)
Advise about Risky Alcohol Use
Most adults who drink at risky levels and were asked about their alcohol use during checkups were not advised to drink less.
(Published: May 10, 2018)
Public Health Practice in Alaska
Read about how alcohol screening and brief intervention became routine practice in Alaska’s public health nursing clinics.
(Published: April 10, 2020)
[Read Article] Vital Signs: Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies—United States, 2011–2013
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; February 5, 2016; 65(4):91–97
Green PP, McKnight-Eily LR, Tan CH, Mejia R, Denny CH
* These scientific articles are from CDC authors and CDC grantees. It includes publications from 2005 to present.
Alcohol Use, Screening, and Brief Intervention Among Pregnant Persons – 24 U.S. Jurisdictions, 2017 and 2019
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; January 20, 2023; 72(3): 55-62
Luong J, Board A, Gosdin L, Dunkley J, Thierry JM, Pitasi M, Kim SY.
Child Welfare Policies and Practices Regarding Children with Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol and Other Drugs: An Exploratory Study
Child Welfare 2022; 99(6): 65-85
Usher K, Brizzo A, Leicht C, Newburg-Rinn S, Reynolds MR, McCann H, Bertrand J.
Evaluating Partnerships for Practice Change in the Prevention, Identification, and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Journal of Addiction & Addictive Disorders 2022; DOI: 10.24966/AAD-7276/100077
Sapru S, Green P, Weber MK, Chansky M, Price S.
Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking During Pregnancy Among Adults Aged 18–49 Years – United States, 2018–2020
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; January 7, 2022; 71(1): 10-13
Gosdin LK, Deputy NP, Kim SY, Dang EP, Denny CH.
Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: Office-Based Primary Care Physicians, U.S., 2015–2016
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.07.013
Green PP, Cummings NA, Ward BW, McKnight-Eily LR
Children Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol and Other Drugs: What the Literature Tells Us About Child Welfare Information Sources, Policies, and Practices to Identify and Care for Children
Journal of Public Child Welfare 2020; DOI: 10.1080/15548732.2020.1814478
Richards T, Bertrand J, Newburg-Rinn S, McCann H, Morehouse E, Ingoldsby E.
Trends in Alcohol Use Among Pregnant Women in the United States, 2011–2018
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2020.05.017
Denny CH, Acero CS, Terplan M, Kim SY.
Alcohol Use Among HIV-Positive Women of Childbearing Age, United States, 2013–2014
AIDS Care 2020; DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2020.1808161
Frazier EL, Esser MB, McKnight-Eily LR, Zhou W, Chavez PR.
Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Emergency Departments: Review of the Impact on Healthcare Costs and Utilization
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2020; DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2020.108096
Barbosa C, McKnight-Eily LR, Grosse SD, Bray J.
Alcohol Use and Co-use of Other Substances Among Pregnant Females Aged 12–44 Years – United States, 2015–2018
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; August 7, 2020; 69(31): 1009-1014
England LJ, Bennett C, Denny CH, Honein MA, Gilboa SM, Kim SY, Guy GP, Tran EL, Rose CE, Bohm MK, Boyle CA.
Addressing Alcohol Use in Pregnancy
American Journal of Nursing 2020;120(7):22-24
Mitchell AM, Porter RR, Pierce-Bulger M, McKnight-Eily LR.
Screening for Alcohol Use and Brief Counseling of Adults – 13 States and the District of Columbia, 2017
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; March 13, 2020; 69(10): 265-270
McKnight-Eily LR, Okoro CA, Turay K, Acero C, Hungerford D.
Consumption of Alcohol Beverages and Binge Drinking among Pregnant Women Aged 18–44 Years — United States, 2015–2017
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; April 26, 2019; 68(16): 365-368
Denny CH, Acero CS, Naimi TS, Kim SY.
Are Low to Moderate Average Alcohol Consumption and Isolated Episodes of Binge Drinking in Early Pregnancy Associated with Facial Features Related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Five‐Year‐Old Children?
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 2019; DOI:10.1111/acer.14047
Kesmodel US, Nygaard SS, Mortensen EL, Bertrand J, Denny CH, Glidewell A, Hemingway SA.
Adolescent Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment for Substance Use: An Application for School Social Workers
Children & Schools 2018; DOI: 10.1093/cs/cdy018
Singh N, McCann H, Weber MK, Gonzalez SJ, Alzate MM.
Examining the Sustainability Potential of a Multisite Pilot to Integrate Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention within Three Primary Care Systems
Translational Behavioral Medicine 2018;8(5):776-784
King DK, Gonzalez SJ, Hartje JA, Hanson BL, Edney C, Snell H, Zoorob RJ, Roget NA.
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Stigma of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Addiction Research & Theory 2018; DOI: 10.1080/16066359.2018.1478413
Corrigan PW, Shah BB, Lara JL, Mitchell KT, Combs-Way P, Simmes D, Jones KL
Screening for Alcohol Misuse: Practices Among U.S. Primary Care Providers, DocStyles 2016
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2017.11.008. Epub December 11, 2017
Tan CH, Hungerford DW, Denny CH, McKnight-Eily LR
Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: A Potential Role in Cancer Prevention for Young Adults
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2017;53(3S1):S55–S62
McKnight-Eily LR, Henley SJ, Green PP, Odom EC, Hungerford DW
Screening for Excessive Alcohol Use and Brief Counseling of Adults — 17 States and the District of Columbia, 2014
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; March 31, 2017; 66(12): 313-319
McKnight-Eily LR, Okoro CA, Mejia R, Denny CH, Higgins-Biddle J, Hungerford D, Kanny D, Sniezek JE
Impact of the CHOICES Intervention in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies in American Indian Women
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 2017 Feb 7, epub ahead of print
Hanson JD, Nelson ME, Jensen JL, Willman A, Jacobs-Knight J, Ingersoll K
Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Pediatrics 2016; DOI 10.1542/peds.2015-1553. Epub September 27, 2016
Hagan JF (Chair), Balachova T, Bertrand J, Chasnoff I, Dang E, Fernandez-Baca D, Kable J, Kosofsky B, Senturias YN, Singh N, Sloane M, Weitzman C, Zubler J on behalf of Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Workgroup; American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove, IL.
Alcohol Intervention for Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Project Step Up, a Treatment Development Study
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2016; DOI: 10.1111/acer.13111. Epub 2016 May 24
O’Connor MJ, Quattlebaum J, Castañeda M, Dipple KM
Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present. Search with the keyword “fetal alcohol syndrome.”