The Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) Strategy
- *new* TAP Infographic (print only) pdf icon[PDF – 1 page] – One page Infographic describing the TAP Strategy to engage leadership and encourage facility participation
- Individual Facility User – TAP ‘How To’ Guide pdf icon[PDF – 1.41 MB]
- Group User – TAP ‘How To’ Guide pdf icon[PDF – 1.35 MB]
- Targeted Assessment for Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections: A New Prioritization Metricexternal icon – Journal article by Soe et al. published in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology describing the cumulative attributable difference (CAD) metric.
- Example Letter word icon[DOC – 172 KB] – From a State Health Department to a Healthcare Facility, encouraging participation in state and regional prevention collaboratives.
- TAP Strategy Reports – NHSN Guidance on Generating a TAP Report
- TAP Glossary of Terms March 2015 pdf icon[PDF – 127 KB]
- TAP Training – NHSN Data Entry and Analysis
- CAUTI TAP Facility Assessment Tool v2.0 – May 2016 pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]
- CLABSI TAP Facility Assessment Tool v3.0* – March 2018 pdf icon[PDF – 1 MB]
- CLABSI TAP Facility Assessment Tool v2.0* – August 2016 pdf icon[PDF – 924 KB]
- CDI TAP Facility Assessment Tool v5.0* – April 2018 pdf icon[PDF – 2 MB]
- CDI TAP Facility Assessment Tool v4.0* – July 2016 pdf icon[PDF – 1,024 KB]
- CDI Facility Assessment Tool – Instructions pdf icon[PDF – 383 KB]
- CDI Facility Assessment Tool – Lab section pdf icon[PDF – 277 KB]
- CDI Facility Assessment Tool – Stewardship section pdf icon[PDF – 313 KB]
*Note: The CLABSI and CDI TAP Facility Assessment Tools have been updated and are now available in Versions 3.0 and 5.0, respectively. For the updated TAP Excel Spreadsheets (which compile and summarize Assessment responses to create the TAP Feedback Report) please email HAIPrevention@cdc.gov. The Assessment and Excel Spreadsheet versions must match (e.g., either both v2.0 or both v3.0). Partners are encouraged to use the updated tool versions, as the previous versions will only be available on the TAP website for a limited time.
In addition, CDC has developed SurveyMonkey templates for the CLABSI v3.0 and CDI v5.0 TAP Facility Assessments. Please email HAIPrevention@cdc.gov if your program would like to utilize these templates.
- TAP CAUTI Toolkit Implementation Guide: Links to Example Resources
- TAP CDI Implementation Guide: Links to Example Resources
- TAP CLABSI Implementation Guide: Links to Example Resources
For questions pertaining to the TAP Strategy and the accompanying TAP tools, please contact: HAIPrevention@cdc.gov
The Targeted Assessment for Prevention (TAP) Strategy is a framework for quality improvement developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to use data for action to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The TAP Strategy consists of three components: 1) Running TAP Reports in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) to target healthcare facilities and specific units with an excess burden of HAIs. 2) Administering TAP Facility Assessment Tools to identify gaps in infection prevention in the targeted locations. 3) Accessing infection prevention resources within the TAP Implementation Guides to address those gaps. The TAP Reports use a metric called the cumulative attributable difference (CAD). The CAD is the number of infections that must be prevented to achieve an HAI reduction goal and is calculated by subtracting a numerical prevention target from an observed number of HAIs. The TAP Reports allow for the ranking of facilities, or locations within individual facilities, by the CAD to prioritize prevention efforts where they will have the greatest impact.
WHO is using the TAP Strategy?
CDC is working with partners such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Quality Innovation Network-Quality Improvement Organizations (QIN-QIOs) and Hospital Improvement Innovation Networks (HIINs), State Health Departments, healthcare systems, and facilities to incorporate the TAP Strategy into their quality improvement work. Prevention partners engaged in quality improvement and collaborative work may use the TAP Strategy to identify and reach out to facilities within their jurisdictions to assist them with prioritizing their HAI prevention efforts. In this way, groups and facilities can use data for action to target gaps for prevention and intervention.
WHERE does the data that is used for the TAP Reports come from?
Data used for the TAP Reports are reported by healthcare facilities to CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Healthcare facilities may use their own data to generate TAP Reports for different HAIs and patient care locations. Other entities (e.g., QIN-QIOs, HIINs, Health Departments, hospital associations) that have access to NHSN data through NHSN’s “Group” function may also generate TAP Reports for the healthcare facilities within their groups/states. Publically available data from NHSN (e.g., CMS Hospital Compare) may also be used to rank facilities according to their CAD.
WHY is CDC using the TAP strategy?
CDC strives to move toward the goal of HAI elimination by using data to target prevention efforts and measure progress. The CDC TAP Strategy uses the CAD metric to identify healthcare facilities, or locations within facilities, with a disproportionate burden of HAIs above the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) prevention targetsexternal icon or a customized prevention target so that limited prevention resources can be used most effectively. This strategy can be tailored to specific HAI reduction goals and healthcare settings. The CAD is based upon and complimentary to CDC’s main HAI metric, the Standardized Infection Ratio (SIR). The CAD will not replace the SIR; the SIR will remain CDC’s main measure of progress toward the elimination of HAIs. Instead, the CAD will be used in conjunction with the SIR, specifically serving as the metric for the TAP Strategy that is intended to accelerate prevention to meet goals on the way toward elimination.
WHEN did the TAP Strategy become available?
In January 2015, TAP Reports became available within the NHSN application for use by hospitals and NHSN Groups with access to hospital data. These reports are available for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), and laboratory-identified (LabID) event Clostridium difficile infections (CDI). As of March 2017, Acute Care Hospitals and Long Term Acute Care Hospitals are able to run TAP Reports for CAUTI, CLABSI, and CDI, and Inpatient Rehab Facilities (IRFs) and IRF Units are able to run TAP Reports for CAUTI and CDI. The TAP Facility Assessment Tools and TAP Implementation Guides were developed in 2016 and are now available for CAUTI, CLABSI, and CDI.
Please note: As of March 2017, the NHSN application has been updated to Version 8.6.2. Implications pertaining to running TAP Reports in NHSN include:
- The risk adjustments used to calculate the Standardized Infection Ratios (SIRs) have been updated in accordance with the new 2015 Rebaseline. All NHSN PS risk-adjusted summary measures, including the metric used by TAP Reports to rank locations and/or facilities, the Cumulative Attributable Difference (CAD) metric, will use this updated Rebaseline moving forward. Visit CDC’s NHSN website for more information about the 2015 Rebaseline.
- The application interface for NHSN has been updated. Users are still able to run and modify reports, but the modification screen has now changed. After choosing to modify a report, select the “Display Options” tab to choose the SIR Goal. Users will notice that previous to the application update, an SIR Goal could be specified by creating a custom CAD Multiplier (prevention target) or using the HHS goal SIRs or National SIRs. The CAD Multiplier is now referred to as the “SIRgoal”. Please note that the 2015 National SIRs are currently not available in the application. Users should instead use the Custom value options to create an SIR goal or use the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Prevention targets, also known as the HHS goalsexternal icon.
- Similar to Acute Care Hospitals, Long Term Acute Care Hospitals may now run TAP Reports for CLABSI and CAUTI data at the location/facility level and FACWIDEIN CDI LabID TAP Reports.
- Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities (IRFs), including IRF units within the acute care hospital, can now create TAP Reports for CAUTI data and will have the ability to run CDI LabID TAP Reports in the near future.