Antibiotic Resistance & Patient Safety Portal

The Antibiotic Resistance & Patient Safety Portal (AR&PSP) is an interactive web-based application that was created to innovatively display data collected through CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network), and other sources.  It offers enhanced data visualizations on Antibiotic Resistance, Use, and Stewardship datasets as well as Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) data.

Antibiotic Resistance (AR) Data

CDC’s AR Data provides open and interactive data about HAIs caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria, which are reported to CDC through the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). AR Data currently includes 2011-2018 data from over 4,000 facilities that reported at least one HAI to NHSN, including:

  • general acute care hospitals
  • pediatric hospitals
  • oncology hospitals
  • long-term acute care hospitals
  •  inpatient rehabilitation facilities

Due to insufficient data, long-term care and skilled nursing facilities are not included at this time.

The data shown in AR Data were gathered after one of three key types of infections occurred in the hospital:

  • Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI)
  • Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI)
  • Surgical site infections (SSI)

At the national level, SSI data reflect all types of SSIs (superficial, deep, and organ/space) that occurred following any of the 39 NHSN inpatient procedures and were performed between 2011-2018.

AR Data includes resistance data for 29 bug-drug profiles (or phenotypes, pathogen-antibiotic combinations that are used to describe the bacteria’s resistance to a specific drug(s)). These phenotypes include:

  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)
  • Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa

For a full list of pathogen-drug combinations, read the Phenotype Definitions pdf icon[PDF – 5 pages] document available in the “About the Data” section of the AR&PSP.

To read how the data were gathered and limitations of the data, please read the Methodology pdf icon[PDF – 4 pages] document available in the “About the Data” section of the AR&PSP. AR data helps inform, but does not replace, national estimates of cases of infection reported by CDC in the Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2019 (2019 AR Threats Report). The percent resistance describes the proportion of all pathogens that are resistant to certain antibiotics. Percentages shown in the portal may not reflect the total burden of healthcare-associated infections. For example, State A has a higher percentage of MRSA (48.0%) among all years and HAIs compared to State B (46.0%), however State B had more MRSA infections (1393) than State A (20). For an estimate of total burden of disease, please see the 2019 AR Threats Report.

Additional Resources:

Antibiotic Use Data

View outpatient antibiotic prescription data from IQVIA Xponent data and U.S. Census files in an interactive database.

Description: Data on oral antibiotic prescriptions dispensed to outpatients in U.S. community pharmacies.

Dates: 2011-2017 (updated November 2019)

Source: Xponent database from IQVIA (Danbury, Connecticut).

Reporting facilities:

  • Community pharmacies
  • Mail-order pharmacies

Federal healthcare facilities and pharmacies were not included.

Reported antibiotic classes:

The national data includes 10 antibiotic classes; the state data includes 4 common antibiotic classes such as:

  • Penicillins (e.g., amoxicillin)
  • Macrolides (e.g., azithromycin)
  • Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin)
Antibiotic Stewardship Data

Description: Data on inpatient antibiotic stewardship practices in U.S. acute care hospitals.

Dates: 2014-2018 (updated November 2019)

Source: CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)

Reporting events:

Data is gathered on the 7 Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs.

  1. Leadership Commitment: Dedicating necessary human, financial and IT resources.
  2. Accountability: Appointing a single leader responsible for program outcomes.
  3. Drug Expertise: Appointing a single pharmacist leader responsible for working to improve antibiotic use.
  4. Action: Implementing at least one recommended action.
  5. Tracking: Monitoring antibiotic prescribing and resistance patterns.
  6. Reporting: Regular reporting information on antibiotic use and resistance to doctors, nurses and relevant staff.
  7. Education: Educating clinicians about resistance and optimal prescribing.
Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network) Data

CDC’s AR Lab Network supports nationwide lab capacity to rapidly detect antibiotic resistance and inform local responses to prevent spread and protect people. The network closes the gap between local capabilities and the data needed to combat AR in healthcare, food, and the community. The AR&PSP displays the healthcare-associated infection data collected by the AR Lab Network.

Data displays include:

  • National snapshot of carbapenemase genes detected across 3 priority organisms (Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) and Carbapenemase Gene Screens (Colonization Screening)
  • Profiles for the 3 priority organisms:
    • Number of isolates tested
    • Percentage with targeted carbapenemase gene detected
    • Most common carbapenemase gene detected
    • Carbapenemase genes detected by state, genus, and region
  • Profile for colonization screening including:
    • Number of screens performed
    • Percentage with targeted carbapenemase gene detected
    • Most common carbapenemase gene detected
    • Carbapenemase genes detected from screens, by region

Dates: 2017-2018 (updated December 2019)

Details about lab testing techniques and data management and analysis can be found in the methodology section of the AR Lab Network section of the AR&PSP.

The AR Lab Network is not a surveillance system so these data cannot be generalized to the entire nation. Caution should be used when comparing data between states or regions; within each state, isolate submissions and testing are determined by state regulations and priorities. A higher frequency of detection does not necessarily mean higher rates of incidence.

Healthcare-Associated Infection Data
C. difficile Data

The AR&PSP now includes the number of reported C. difficile infections among hospitalized patients. This includes the number of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection, including community-onset and hospital-onset infections, across U.S. general acute care hospitals.

Date: 2018

Source: National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN)