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Content on this page was developed during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic and has not been updated.

  • The H1N1 virus that caused that pandemic is now a regular human flu virus and continues to circulate seasonally worldwide.
  • The English language content on this website is being archived for historic and reference purposes only.
  • For current, updated information on seasonal flu, including information about H1N1, see the CDC Seasonal Flu website.

Epidemiological Publications Related to the H1N1 Pandemic by CDC Influenza Division, Epidemiology and Prevention Branch Authors

Deaths and HoSurveillance & Epidemiology

Azziz-Baumgartner E, Alamgir ASM, Rahman M, Homaira N, Sohel BM, Sharker MAY, Zaman RU, Dee J, Gurley ES, Mamun AA, Mah-e-Muneer S, Fry AM, Widdowson, MA, Bresee J, Lindstrom S, Luby S. Incidence of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection during three influenza seasons in Bangladesh, 2008–2010. WHO Tech Report.

Bhattarai A, Villanueva J, Palekar RS, Fagan R, Sessions W, Winter J, Berman L, Lute J, Leap R, Marchbanks T, Sodha SV, Moll M, Xu X, Fry A, Fiore AE, Ostroff S, Swerdlow DL and the Pennsylvania  H1N1 Influenza Working Group. Viral shedding duration of pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus during an elementary school outbreak—Pennsylvania, May–June 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S102-S108.

Brammer L, Blanton L, Epperson S, Mustaquim D, Bishop A, Kniss K, Dhara R, Nowell M, Kamimoto L, and Finelli L. Surveillance for Influenza during the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic – United States April 2009 – February 2010. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S27-S35.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Outbreak of Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection --- Mexico, March--April 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(17):467-70.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infections in Two Children – Southern California, March -- April 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(15):400-02.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Update: Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infections – California and Texas, April 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(16):435-7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection --- Mexico, March--May, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(21);585-589.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections Among Health-Care Personnel --- United States, April--May 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.  2009;58(23):641-645.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, April--August 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(36):1009-1012.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza Activity --- United States, August 30 -- October 31, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(44):1236-1241.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infections- Chicago, Illinois, April – July 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:913-8.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza Activity ---United States, August 30, 2009 – March 27, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(14):423-30.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza Activity ---United States, August 30, 2009 – January 9, 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(2):38-43.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: Influenza Activity ---United States, 2009 – 2010 Season. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59(29):901-908.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Self-reported influenza-like illness during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic--United States, September 2009 - March 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(2);37-41.

Cook S., Conrad C., Fowlkes A.L., Mohebbi M.H. Assessing Google Flu Trends performance in the United States during the 2009 influenza virus A(H1N1) pandemic. Plos One. 2011;6(8):e23610.

Cox CM, Blanton L, Dhara R, Brammer L, Finelli L. 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) deaths among children ─ United States, 2009-2010. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S69-S74.

Dawood FS, Dalton CB, Durrheim DN, Hope KG. Rates of hospitalisation for acute respiratory illness and the emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in the Hunter New England Area Health Service. Med J Aust. 2009;191:573-4.

Dawood FS, Hope KG, Durrheim DN, Givney, R, Fry AM, Dalton CB. Estimating the Disease Burden of pH1N1 Virus Infection in Hunter New England, Northern New South Wales, Australia, 2009.  Plos One. 2010 Mar 25;5(3):e9880.

Dawood FS, Jain S, Finelli L, Shaw MW, Lindstrom S, Garten RJ, Gubareva L, Xu X, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM for the Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. Emergence of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus in Humans. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(25):2605-15.

Dawood FS, Kamimoto L, D'Mello TA, Reingold A, Gershman K, Meek J, Arnold KE, Farley M, Ryan P, Lynfield R, Morin C, Baumbach J, Zansky S, Bennett N, Thomas A, Schaffner W, Kirschke D, Finelli L, the Emerging Infections Program Network. Children With Asthma Hospitalized With Seasonal or Pandemic Influenza, 2003-2009. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):e27-e32.

Dee DL, Bensyl D, Gindler J, Truman BI, Allen BG, D’Mello T, Perez A, Kamimoto L, Biggerstaff M, Blanton L, Fowlkes A, Glover MJ, Swerdlow DL, Finelli L. Racial and ethnic disparities in hospitalizations and deaths associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. Ann Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;21(8):623-30.

Dwyer DE, INSIGHT Influenza Study Group. Surveillance of illness associated with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection among adults using a global clinical site network approach: the INSIGHT FLU 002 and FLU 003 studies. Vaccine. 2011 Jul 22;29 Suppl 2:B56-62.

Ebrahim SH, Memish ZA, Uyeki TM, Khoja TA, Marano N, McNabb SJ. Pandemic H1N1 and the 2009 Hajj. Science. 2009 Nov 13;326(5955):938-40.

Fowler RA, Webb SA, Rowan KM, Sprung CL, Thompson BT, Randolph AG, Jouvet P, Lapinsky S, Rubinson L, Rello J, Cobb JP, Rice TW, Uyeki T, Marshall JC. Early observational research and registries during the 2009-2010 influenza A pandemic. Crit Care Med. 2010 Apr;38(4 Suppl):e120-32.

Fowlkes A, Arguin P, Biggerstaff M, Gindler J, Blau D, Jain S, Dhara R, McLaughlin J, Turnipseed E, Meyer JJ, Louie JK, Siniscalchi A, Hamilton JJ, Reeves A, Park SY, Richter D, Ritchey MD, Cocoros NM, Blythe D, Vagasky-Peters, Lynfield R, Peterson L, Anderson J, Moore Z, Williams R, McHugh L, Cruz C, Waters CL, Page SL, McDonald CK, Vandermeer M, Waller K, Uptala B, Jones TF, Bullion L, Vernon V, Lofy KH, Haupt T, Finelli L. Epidemiology of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) deaths in the United States, April– July 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S60-S68.

Garten RJ, Davis CT, Russell CA, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Balish A, Sessions WM, Xu X, Skepner E, Deyde V, Okomo-Adhiambo M, Gubareva L, Barnes J, Smith CB, Emery SL, Hillman MJ, Rivailler P, Smagala J, de Graaf M, Burke DF, Fouchier RA, Pappas C, Alpuche-Aranda CM, López-Gatell H, Olivera H, López I, Myers CA, Faix D, Blair PJ, Yu C, Keene KM, Dotson PD Jr, Boxrud D, Sambol AR, Abid SH, St George K, Bannerman T, Moore AL, Stringer DJ, Blevins P, Demmler-Harrison GJ, Ginsberg M, Kriner P, Waterman S, Smole S, Guevara HF, Belongia EA, Clark PA, Beatrice ST, Donis R, Katz J, Finelli L, Bridges CB, Shaw M, Jernigan DB, Uyeki TM, Smith DJ, Klimov AI, Cox NJ. Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans. Science. 2009;325(5937):197-201.

Gindler J Grohskopf LA, Biggerstaff M, Finelli L. A model survey for assessing 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus disease burden in the workplace. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S173-S176.

Huai Y, Lin J, Varma JK, Peng Z, He J, Cheng C, Zhong H, Chen Y, Zheng Y, Luo Y, Liang W, Wu X, Huang Z, McFarland J, Feng Z, Uyeki TM, Yu H. A primary school outbreak of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in China. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2010 Sep;4(5):259-66.

Iuliano AD, Dawood FS, Silk BJ, Bhattarai A, Copeland D, Doshi S, France AM,  Jackson ML, Kennedy E, Loustalot F, Marchbanks T, Mitchell T, Averhoff F, Olsen SJ, Swerdlow DL, Finelli L. Investigating 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in United States Schools:  What have we learned? Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S161-S167.

Iuliano AD, Reed C, Guh A, Desai M,  Dee DL, Kutty P, Gould LH, Sotir M, Grant G, Lynch M, Mitchell T, Getchel J, Shu B, Villanueva J, Lindstrom S, Massoudi MS, Siebold J, Silverman PR, Armstrong G, Swerdlow DL. Notes from the field: Outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus at a large public university in Delaware, April–May 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:1811-20. (E-published ahead of print November 13, 2009).

Jain S, Kamimoto L, Bramley AM, Schmitz AM, Benoit SR, Louie J, Sugerman DE, Druckenmiller JK, Ritger KA, Chugh R, Jasuja S, Deutscher M, Chen S, Walker JD, Duchin JS, Lett S, Soliva S, Wells EV, Swerdlow D, Uyeki TM, Fiore AE, Olsen SJ, Fry AM, Bridges CB, Finelli L, the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Hospitalizations Investigation Team. Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in the United States, April-June 2009. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361:1935-44.

Janusz KB, Cortes JE, Serdarevic F,  Jones RC, Jones JD, Ritger KA, Morita JY, Gerber SI, Biggerstaff BJ,  Hicks LA, Swerdlow DL, Fischer M, Staples JE for the Chicago H1N1 Epidemiology Team. Influenza-like illness in a community surrounding a school-based outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus – Chicago, Illinois, 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:S94-S101.

Jhung MA, Davidson H, McIntyre A, Gregg WJ, Dasgupta S, D’Mello T, White V, Fowlkes A, Brammer L, Finelli L. Preliminary results of 2009 pandemic influenza surveillance in the United States using the Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2011;5(5):321-7.

Jhung MA, Swerdlow D, Olsen SJ, Jernigan D, Biggerstaff M, Kamimoto L, Kniss K, Reed C, Fry A, Brammer L, Gindler J, Gregg J, Bresee J, Finelli L. Epidemiology of 2009 pandemic H1N1 in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S13-26.

Lindblade KA, Arvelo W, Gray J, Estevez A, Frenkel G, Reyes L, Moscoso F, Moir JC, Fry AM, Olsen SJ. A comparison of the epidemiologic and clinical presentation of seasonal influenza A and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Guatemala.  Plos One. 2010;5(12):e15826.

Lipsitch M, Finelli L, Heffernan RT, Leung GM, Redd SC for the 2009 H1N1 Surveillance Group. Improving the Evidence Base for Decision Making During a Pandemic: The Example of 2009 Influenza A/H1N1. Biosecur Bioterror. 2011; June:89-115.

Marchbanks TL, Bhattarai A, Fagan RP, Ostroff S, Sodha SV, Moll ME, Lee BY, Cauchemez S, Angulo FJ, Swerdlow DL, and the Pennsylvania  H1N1 Influenza Working Group. An outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in an elementary school, Pennsylvania, 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S154-S160.

McCallum L and Partridge J. Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal. 2010, 1(1). doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2010.1.1.008

Memish ZA, McNabb SJ, Mahoney F, Alrabiah F, Marano N, Ahmed QA, Mahjour J, Hajjeh RA, Formenty P, Harmanci FH, El Bushra H, Uyeki TM, Nunn M, Isla N, Barbeschi M, Jeddah Hajj Consultancy Group. Establishment of public health security in Saudi Arabia for the 2009 Hajj in response to pandemic influenza A H1N1. Lancet. 2009 Nov 21;374(9703):1786-91.

Morgan OW, Bramley A, Fowlkes A, Freedman D, Taylor TH, Gargiullo P, Belay B, Jain S, Cox C, Kamimoto L, Fiore A, Finelli L, Olsen SJ, Fry AM. Morbid Obesity as a Risk Factor for Hospitalization and Death due to 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Disease. PLoS One. 2010;5(3):e9694.

Osoro EM, Munyua P, Muthoka P, Gikundi S, Njenga MK, Lifumo S, Achilla R, Waiboci L, Nzioka C, Omolo J, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, Katz MA. Hospitalized patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;17 (9):1744-6.

Peters PJ, Skarbinski J, Louie JK, Jain S, the New York City Department of Health Swine Flu Investigation Team, Roland M,  Jani SG, Finelli L, Brooks JT. HIV-infected Hospitalized Patients with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) - United States, Spring and Summer 2009.  Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S183-S188.

Reed C, Angulo F, Biggerstaff M, Swerdlow DL, Finelli L. Influenza-like illness in the community during the emergence of 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 – Ten US States, April 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S90-S93.

Reed C, Angulo FJ, Swerdlow DL, Lipsitch M, Meltzer MI, Jernigan D, Finelli L. Estimates of the prevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States, April-July 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15(12):2004-7.

Reed C, Katz JM. Serological surveys for 2009 pandemic influenza A H1N1. Lancet. 2010; 375(9720):1062-3.

Reyes L, Arvelo W, Estevez A, Gray J, Moir JC, Gordillo B, Frenkel G, Ardón F, Olsen SJ, Fry AM, Lindstrom  S, Lindblade KA. Population-Based Surveillance for 2009 Pandemic Influenza A  (H1N1) Virus in Guatemala, 2009. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2010;4:129-140.

Rodriguez-Noriega E, Gonzalez-Diaz E, Morfin-Otero R, Gomez-Abundis GF, Briseño-Ramirez J, Perez-Gomez HR, Lopez-Gatell H, Alpuche-Aranda CM, Ramírez E, López I, Iguala M, Bojórquez Chapela I, Palacios Zavala E, Hernández M, Stuart TL, Villarino ME, Widdowson MA, Waterman S, Uyeki T, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Hospital Civil de Guadalajara, Fray Antonio Alcalde Emerging Respiratory Infections Response Team. Hospital triage system for adult patients using an influenza-like illness scoring system during the 2009 pandemic--Mexico. PLoS One. 2010 May 14;5(5):e10658.

Shinde V, Bridges CB, Uyeki TM, Shu B, Balish A, Xu X, Lindstrom S, Gubareva LV, Deyde V, Garten RJ, Harris M, Gerber S, Vagasky S, Smith F, Pascoe N, Martin K, Dufficy D, Ritger K, Conover C, Quinlisk P, Klimov A, Bresee JS, Finelli L. Triple-Reassortant Swine Influenza A (H1) in Humans in the United States, 2005-2009. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(25):2616-25.

Shrestha SS, Swerdlow DL, Borse RH, Prabhu VS, Finelli L,  Atkins CY, Owusu-Edusei K, Bell BP, Mead PS, Biggerstaff M, Brammer L,  Davidson H, Jernigan D, Jhung MA, Kamimoto LA, Merlin TL, Nowell M, Redd SC, Reed C, Schuchat A, Meltzer MI. Estimating the burden of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in the United States (April 2009 – April 2010). Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S75-S82.

Skarbinski J, Jain S, Bramley A, Lee EJ,  Huang J, Kirschke D, Stone A, Wedlake T, Richards, SM, Page S, Ragan P, Bullion L, Neises D, Williams RM, Petruccelli BP, Vandermeer M, Lofy KH, Gindler J, and Finelli L, and the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Fall Hospitalizations Investigation Team. Hospitalized patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in the United States--September-October 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S50-S59.

Sugerman D, Nadeau K,  Lafond K, Cameron W, Soetebier K, Jhung M, Isakov A, Greenwald I, Neil K, Schrag S, Fry A. Survey of Emergency Department 2009 H1N1 Surge Preparedness --- Atlanta, Georgia, July-October, 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 52(suppl 1):S177-S182.

Suryaprasad A, Morgan OW, Peebles P, Warner A, Kerin TK, Esona MD, Bowen MD, Sessions W, Xu X, Cromeans T, Dawood F, Shim T, Menon M, Verani JR, Erdman D, Lindstrom S, Fonseca VP, Fry AM, Olsen SJ. Virus detection and duration of illness among patients with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52(suppl 1):S109-S115.

Swerdlow DL, Finelli L, Bridges CB. 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic:  Field and epidemiologic investigations in the United States at the start of the first pandemic of the 21st Century. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S1-S3.

Tinoco Y, Razuri H, Ortiz EJ, Gomez J, Widdowson MA, Uyeki T, Laguna-Torres VA, Kochel TJ, Gilman RH, Montgomery JM, Peru Influenza Working Group.     Preliminary population-based epidemiological and clinical data on 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A (pH1N1) from Lima, Peru. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2009 Nov;3(6):253-6.

Uyeki TM, Sharma A, Branda JA. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 40-2009.    A 29-year-old man with Fever and respiratory failure.  N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 24;361(26):2558-69.

Van Kerkhove MD, Mounts AW, Mall S, Vandemaele KAH, Chamberland M, dos Santos T,  Fitzner J, Widdowson M-A, Michalove J, Bresee J, Olsen SJ, Quick L, Baumeister E, Carlino LO, Savy V, Uez O, Owen R, Ghani F, Paterson B, Fasce R, Torres G, Andrade W, Bustos P, Mora J, Gonzalez C, Olea A, Sotomayor V, De Ferrari MN, Burgos A, Hunt D, Huang QS, Jennings LC, Macfarlane M, Lopez LD, McArthur C, Cohen C, Archer B, Blumberg L, Cengimbo A, Makunga C, McAnerney J, Msimang V, Naidoo D, Puren A, Schoub B, Thomas J, Venter M. Epidemiologic and Virologic Assessment of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic on Selected Temperate Countries in the Southern Hemisphere: Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand and South Africa. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2011 Apr 20 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00249.x.

Waiboci L, Lebo E, Williamson J, Mwiti W, Kikwai G, Njuguna H, Olack B, Breiman R, Njenga K, Katz, M. Viral shedding in patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Kenya, 2009. PLosOne. 2011; 6(6): e20320.

White, L Wallinga J, Finelli L, Reed C, Riley S, Lipsitch M, Pagano M. Estimation of the Reproductive Number and the Serial Interval in Early Phase of the 2009 Influenza the Current Influenza A/H1N1 Pandemic in the USA. Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2009;3(6):267-76.

Wise ME, De Perio M, Halpin J, Jhung M, Magill S, Black SR, Gerber SI, Harriman K, Rosenberg J, Borlaug G, Finelli L, Olsen SJ, Swerdlow DL, Kallen AJ. Transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza to healthcare personnel in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S198-S204.

Writing Committee of the WHO Consultation on Clinical Aspects of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza, Bautista E, Chotpitayasunondh T, Gao Z, Harper SA, Shaw M, Uyeki TM, Zaki SR, Hayden FG, Hui DS, Kettner JD, Kumar A, Lim M, Shindo N, Penn C, Nicholson KG. Clinical aspects of pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. N Engl J Med.  2010 May 6;362(18):1708-19.

Xu C, Bai T, Iuliano AD, Wang M, Yang L, Wen L, Zeng Y, Li X, Chen T, Wang W, Hu Y, Yang L, Li Z, Zou S, Li D, Wang S, Feng Z, Zhang Y, Yu H, Yang W, Wang Y, Widdowson MA, Shu Y. The seroprevalence of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) virus in China. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 21;6(4):e17919.


Cauchemez S, Bhattarai A, Marchbanks TL,  Fagan RP,  Ostroff S, Ferguson NM, Swerdlow D and the Pennsylvania H1N1 working group. Role of social networks in shaping disease transmission during a community outbreak of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2825-30.  (E-published ahead of print January 31, 2011)

Cauchemez S, Donnelly CA, Reed C, Ghani AC, Fraser C, Kent CK, Finelli L, Ferguson NM. Household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2619-2627.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Introduction and transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) Virus--Kenya, June-July 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009 Oct 23;58(41):1143-6.

Donnelly CA, Finelli L, Cauchemez S, Olsen SJ, Doshi S, Jackson ML, Kennedy ED, Kamimoto L, Marchbanks TL, Morgan OW, Patel M, Swerdlow DL, Ferguson NM, and the pH1N1 Household Investigations Working Group. Serial Intervals and Relative Infectiousness of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)–Implications for Influenza Control Recommendations. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S123-S130.

France AM, Jackson M, Schrag S, Lynch M, Zimmerman C, Biggerstaff M, Hadler J. Household transmission of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus after a school-based outbreak in New York City, April-May 2009. J Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 1;201(7):984-92.

Guh A, Reed C, Gould LH, Kutty P, Iuliano AD, Mitchell T, Dee D, Desai M, Siebold J, Silverman P, Massoudi MS, Lynch M, Sotir M, Armstrong GL, Swerdlow DL. Transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a public university - Delaware, April–May, 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:S131-S137.

Jackson ML, France AM, Hancock K, Lu X, Veguilla V, Sun H, Liu F, Hadler J, Harcourt BH, Esposito DH, Zimmerman CM, Katz JM, Fry AM, Schrag SJ. Serologically confirmed household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus during the first pandemic wave — New York City, April–May 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53(5):455-462.

Loustalot F, Silk B, Gaither A, Shim T, Lamias M, Dawood F, Morgan OW, Fishbein D, Guerra S, Verani JR, Carlson SA, Fonseca VP, Olsen SJ. Household Transmission of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) and Nonpharmaceutical Interventions among Households of High School Students in San Antonio, Texas. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52(suppl 1):S146-S153.

Morgan OW, Parks S, Shim T, Blevins PA, Lucas PM, Sanchez R, Walea N, Loustalot F, Duffy MR, Shim MJ, Guerra s, Guerra F, Mills G, Verani J, Alsip b, Lindstrom s, Shu b, Emery S, Cohen AL, Menon M, Fry AM, Dawood F, Fonseca VP, Olsen SJ.     Household Transmission of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009. San Antonio Texas, USA, April—May, 2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:631-637.

Uyeki TM. 2009 H1N1 virus transmission and outbreaks. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 10;362(23):2221-3.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  Maternal and Infant Outcomes Among Severely Ill Pregnant and Postpartum Women with 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) --- United States, April 2009--August 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(35):1193-96.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections in Three Pregnant Women --- United States, April--May 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.  2009;58(18):497-500.

Creanga A, Kamimoto L, Newsome K, D’Mello T, Jamieson DJ, Zotti ME, Arnold K, Baumbach J, Bennett N, Blythe D, Farley M, Gershman K, Hadler J, Kirschke D, Lynfield R, Meek J, Reingold A, Schaffner W, Thomas A, Zansky S, Finelli L, Honein M.  Seasonal and 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Infection during Pregnancy: a Population-based Study of Hospitalized Cases.  Am J Obstet Gynecol.  2011;204(6 Suppl 1):S38-45.

Creanga AA, Johnson TF, Graitcer SB, Hartman LK, Al-Samarrai T, Schwarz AG, Chu SY,  Sackoff JE, Jamieson DJ, Fine AD, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Jones LE, Uyeki TM, Balter S, Bish CL, Finelli L, Honein MA. Severity of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in pregnant women: New York City, May-June 2009. Obstet Gynecol.  2010;115(4):717-26.

Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, MacFarlane KF, Olsen SJ. Pregnancy and H1N1 infection - Author’s reply. Lancet.  2009; 374:1417-1418.

Jamieson DJ, Honein MA, Rasmussen SA, Williams JL, Swerdlow DL, Biggerstaff MS, Lindstrom S, Louie JK, Christ CM, Bohm SR, Fonseca VP, Ritger KA, Kuhles DJ, Eggers P, Bruce H, Davidson HA, Lutterloh E, Harris ML, Burke C, Cocoros N, Finelli L, MacFarlane KF, Shu B, Olsen SJ, and the Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Pregnancy Working Group. H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection during pregnancy in the USA. Lancet. 2009;374(9688):451-8.

Jamieson DJ, Rasmussen SA, Uyeki TM, Weinbaum C. Pandemic influenza and pregnancy revisited: lessons learned from 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Am J Obstet Gynecol.  2011 Jun;204(6 Suppl 1):S1-3.

Rasmussen SA, Kissin DM, Yeung LF, Macfarlane K, Chu SY, Turcios-Ruiz RM, Mitchell EW, Williams J, Fry AM, Hageman J, Uyeki TM, Jamieson DJ, Pandemic Influenza and the Pandemic Influenza and Pregnancy Working Group.  Preparing for Influenza after 2009 H1N1: Special Considerations for Pregnant Women and Newborns.  Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jun;204(6 Suppl 1):S13-20 [Epub ahead of print 2011 Feb 17]

Siston AM, Rasmussen SA, Honein MA, Fry AM, Seib K, Callaghan WM, Louie J, Doyle TJ, Crockett M, Vernon V, Lynfield R, Moore Z, Wiedeman C, Neale R, Anand M, Tabony L, Finley CG, Chadden M, Nielsen CF, McHugh L, Waller K, Bohm SR, Page S, Vandermeer M, Thompson JM, Williams RM, Avery C, Springs CB, Jones T, Safi H, Cruz CP, McClinton R, Fearey D,  Lum GR, Ritchey MD, Neises D, Hand J, Pippin T, Reeves A, Harris ML, Colborn J, Srinivasan J, Robinson S, Kittle T, Cope J, MacFarlane KF, Williams JL, Finelli L, Jamieson DJ.  Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus illness among pregnant women in the United States. JAMA.            2010;303(15):1517-1525.


Atkins CY, Patel A, Taylor TH Jr, Biggerstaff M, Merlin TL, Dulin SM, Erickson BA, Borse RH, Hunkler R, Meltzer MI. Estimating effect of antiviral drug use during pandemic (H1N1) 2009 outbreak, United States.  Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 Sep;17(9):1591-8.

Chen LF, Dailey NJM, Rao A, Fleischauer A, Greenwald I, Deyde V, Moore ZS, Anderson DJ,  Gubareva L, Sexton DJ, Fry AM, Srinivasan A, Wolfe CR. A Cluster of Oseltamivir-Resistant 2009 Pandemic Influenza A H1N1 Virus among Immunocompromised Patients on a Hospital Ward. J Infect Dis. 2011 Mar;203(6):838-46.

Fry A, Perez A, Finelli L.  Use of intravenous neuraminidase inhibitors during the 2009 pandemic: results from population-based surveillance.  JAMA. 2011;306(2):160-2.

Graitcer SB, Gubareva L, Doshi S, Deyde V, Okomo-Adiambom M, Marshall SA, St. George K, Pan C, Moore Z, Loby K, Louie J, Jhung M, Ades E, Shaw M, Klimov A, Fry AM. Characteristics of patients with oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17;255-7.

Gubareva LV, Trujillo A, Okomo-Adhiambo M, Mishin VP, Deyde VM, Sleeman K, Nguyen H, Sheu T, Garten R, Shaw M, Fry AM, Klimov AI.  Comprehensive Assessment of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Drug Susceptibility in Vitro. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:1151-1159.

Nguyen HT, Fry AM, Loveless PA. Klimov AI, Gubareva LV. Recovery of a multiple drug resistant pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus carrying a dual H275Y/I223R mutation from a child followed a prolonged treatment with oseltamivir. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:983-4.

Uyeki T. Antiviral treatment for patients hospitalized with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1). N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 3;361(23):e110.


Armstrong GL, Brammer L, Finelli L. Timely Assessment of the Severity of the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(Suppl 1):S83-S89.

Presanis AM, De Angelis D, The New York City Swine Flu Investigation Team, Hagy A,  Reed C, Riley S, Cooper BS, Finelli L, Biedrzycki P, Lipsitch M. The severity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in the United States, April – July 2009. PLoS Curr. 2009 Sep 25;1:RRN1042.

Van Kerkhove MD, Vandemaele KA, Shinde V, Jaramillo-Gutierrez G, Koukounari A, Donnelly CA, Carlino LO, Owen R, Paterson B, Pelletier L, Vachon J, Gonzalez C, Hongjie Y, Zijian F, Chuang SK, Au A, Buda S, Krause G, Haas W, Bonmarin I, Taniguichi K, Nakajima K, Shobayashi T, Takayama Y, Sunagawa T, Heraud JM, Orelle A, Palacios E, van der Sande MA, Wielders CC, Hunt D, Cutter J, Lee VJ, Thomas J, Santa-Olalla P, Sierra-Moros MJ, Hanshaoworakul W, Ungchusak K, Pebody R, Jain S, Mounts AW, on behalf of the WHO Working Group for Risk Factors for Severe H1N1pdm Infection. Risk factors for severe outcomes following 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection: a global pooled analysis. PLoS Med. 2011 Jul;8(7):e1001053. Epub 2011 Jul 5.

Yu H, Feng Z, Uyeki TM, Liao Q, Zhou L, Feng L, Ye M, Xiang N, Huai Y, Yuan Y, Jiang H, Zheng Y, Gargiullo P, Peng Z, Feng Y, Zheng J, Xu C, Zhang Y, Shu Y, Gao Z, Yang W, Wang Y. Risk factors for severe illness with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15;52(4):457-65. 


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regional influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent vaccination campaign- Skokie, Illinois, October 16--December 31, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:909-913.

Griffin MR, Monto AS, Belongia EA, Treanor JJ, Chen Q, Chen J, Talbot HK, Ohmit SE, Coleman LA, Lofthus G, Petrie JG, Meece JK, Hall CB, Williams JV, Gargiullo P, Berman L, Shay DK, U.S. Flu-VE Network. Effectiveness of non-adjuvanted pandemic influenza A vaccines for preventing pandemic influenza acute respiratory illness visits in 4 U.S. communities. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23085. Epub 2011 Aug 12.

Oria PA, Matini W, Nelligan I, Emukule G, Scherzer M, Oyier B, Ochieng HN, Hooper L, Kanyuga A, Muthoka P, Morales KF, Nzioka C, Breiman RF, Katz MA. Are Kenyan healthcare workers willing to receive the pandemic influenza vaccine? Results from a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in Kenya about knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning infection with and vaccination against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1), 2010. Vaccine. 2011 Apr 27;29(19):3617-22. Epub 2011 Feb 4.

Prosser LA, Lavelle TA, Fiore AE, Bridges CB, Reed C, Jain S, Dunham KM, Meltzer MI.  Cost-effectiveness of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination in the United States.  PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e22308. Epub 2011 Jul 29.


Akins PT, Belko J, Uyeki TM, Axelrod Y, Lee KK, Silverthorn J. H1N1 encephalitis with malignant edema and review of neurologic complications from influenza.  Neurocrit Care. 2010 Dec;13(3):396-406.

Ampofo K, Herbener A, Blaschke A, Heyrend C, Poritz M, Korgenski K, Rolfs R, Jain S, Carvalho MG, Pimenta FC, Daly J, Mason EO, Byington CL, Pavia AT.  Association of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection and Increased Hospitalization with Parapneumonic Empyema in Utah.  Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Oct; 29 (10): 905-9.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.   Bacterial Coinfections in Lung Tissue Specimens from Fatal Cases of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) --- United States, May--August 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58(38):1071-1074.
Randolph AG, Vaughn F, Sullivan R, Rubinson L, Thompson BT, Yoon G, Smoot E, Rice TW, Loftis LL, Helfaer M, Doctor A, Paden M, Flori H, Babbitt C, Graciano AL, Gedeit R, Sanders RC, Giuliano JS, Zimmerman J, Uyeki TM; the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigator's Network and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network.

Critically Ill Children During the 2009-2010 Influenza Pandemic in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print].

Sejvar JJ, Uyeki TM. Neurologic complications of 2009 influenza A (H1N1): heightened attention on an ongoing question.  Neurology.  2010 Mar 30;74(13):1020-1.

Shieh WJ, Blau DM, Denison AM, Deleon-Carnes M, Adem P, Bhatnagar J, Sumner J, Liu L, Patel M, Batten B, Greer P, Jones T, Smith C, Bartlett J, Montague J, White E, Rollin D, Gao R, Seales C, Jost H, Metcalfe M, Goldsmith CS, Humphrey C, Schmitz A, Drew C, Paddock C, Uyeki TM, Zaki SR. 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1): pathology and pathogenesis of 100 fatal cases in the United States.  Am J Pathol.  2010 Jul;177(1):166-75.

Community Mitigation

Borse RH, Behravesh CB, Dumanovsky T, Zucker JR, Swerdlow DL, Edelson PJ, Choe-Castillo J, Meltzer MI. Closing schools in response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus in New York City: Economic impact on households. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:S168-S172.

Gift TL, Palekar RS, Sodha SV, Kent CK, Fagan RP, Archer WR, Edelson PJ, Marchbanks T, Bhattarai A, Swerdlow D, Ostroff S, Meltzer MI. Household effects of school closure during pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Pennsylvania, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1315-7.

Mitchell T, Dee DL, Phares CR, Lipman HB, Gould LH, Kutty P, Desai M, Guh A, Iuliano AD, Silverman P, Siebold J, Armstrong GL, Swerdlow DL, Massoudi MS, Fishbein DB. Non-Pharmaceutical interventions during an outbreak of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) at a large public university, April–May 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:S138-S145.


Kim C, Ahmed J, Eidex R, Nyoka R, Waiboci L, Erdman D, Tepo A, Mahamud A, Kabura W, Nguhi M,  Muthoka P, Burton W, Breiman R, Njenga M, Katz M. Comparison of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for the diagnosis of eight respiratory viruses by real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6): e21610.

Lucas PM, Morgan OW, Gibbons TF, Guerrero AC, Maupin GM, Butler JL, Canas L, Fonseca VP, Olsen SJ, MacIntosh VH. Diagnosis of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) and Seasonal Influenza using Rapid Influenza Antigen Tests, San Antonio, Texas, April-June 2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52(suppl 1):S116-S122.

Uyeki T. Diagnostic testing for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in hospitalized patients.  N Engl J Med.  2009 Dec 17;361(25):e114.

Jernigan DB, Lindstrom SL, Johnson JR, Miller JD, Hoelscher M, Humes R, Shively R, Brammer L, Burke SA, Villanueva JM, Balish A, Uyeki T, Mustaquim D, Bishop A, Handsfield JH, Astles R, Xu X, Klimov AI, Cox NJ, Shaw MW.  Detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: availability of diagnostic testing led to rapid pandemic response.  Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 1;52 Suppl 1:S36-43.


Jhung M, Finelli L.  One more lesson from the pandemic.  J Public Health Manag Pract. 2011;17(1):1–3.

Pandemic Planning

Azziz Baumgartner E, Smith N , González-Alvarez R, Daves S, Layton M, Linares N, Richardson-Smith N, Bresee J, Mounts A.  National pandemic influenza preparedness planning.  Influenza Other Respi Viruses. 2009;3:189–196.

Meites E, Farias D, Raffo L, Albalak R, Carlino OL, McDonald LC, Widdowson MA. Hospital capacity during an influenza pandemic-Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2011 Jan;32(1):87-90. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

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