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Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

Hispanics/Latinos

HIV/AIDS


Hispanics/Latinos made up 17% of the population of the United States but in 2011 accounted for 21% of diagnoses of HIV infection.

Among Hispanic/Latino males in 2011, an estimated 79% of diagnosed HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, 11% were attributed to heterosexual contact, and 8% were attributed to injection drug use. Approximately 3% of diagnosed HIV infections among Hispanic/Latino males were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use, and less than 1% were attributed to other transmission categories.

Among Hispanic/Latino females in 2011, 86% of diagnosed HIV infections were attributed to heterosexual contact, 14% were attributed to injection drug use, and less than 1% were attributed to other transmission categories.

A recent HIV care and treatment study published in JAMA Internal Medicine showed that Hispanic/Latinos diagnosed with HIV are less likely than whites to be linked to care, retained in care, receive antiretroviral treatment and achieve adequate viral suppression.


Hispanic/Latino Males

photo of a hispanic family

Among adult and adolescent Hispanic/Latino males diagnosed with HIV infection in 2011, an estimated 39% were born in the United States, 17% were born in Mexico, 10% were born in Puerto Rico, 7% were born in Central America, 5% were born in South America, 2% were born in Cuba and 3% were born in a place other than these. An estimated 17% of Hispanic/Latino males diagnosed with HIV infection in 2011 did not have a reported place of birth.

Hispanic/Latino Females

Among adult and adolescent Hispanic/Latino females diagnosed with HIV infection in 2011, 36% were born in the United States, 20% were born in Puerto Rico, 11% were born in Mexico, 8% were born in Central America, 3% were born in South America, 1% were born in Cuba, and 8% were born in a place other than these. An estimated 15% of Hispanic/Latino females diagnosed with HIV infection in 2011 did not have a reported place of birth.

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)


Gonorrhea

In 2010, the gonorrhea rate among Hispanics was 49.9 cases per 100,000 population, which was 2.2 times the rate among whites. This disparity between Hispanics and whites was similar to that in recent years and was higher for Hispanic men than for Hispanic women (Figure Q). The disparity in gonorrhea rates for Hispanics was highest in the Northeast and lowest in the West.

Chlamydia

In 2010, the chlamydia rate among Hispanics was 369.6 cases per 100,000 population, which is a 4.4% increase from the 2009 rate of 353.9 cases per 100,000 and nearly three times the rate among whites.

Syphilis

During 2009–2010, the rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis among Hispanics increased 9.5% (from 4.2 to 4.6 cases per 100,000 population). In 2010, 16.2% of all cases reported to CDC were among Hispanics. The 2010 rate of P&S syphilis for Hispanics was 2.2 times the rate for whites.

In 2010, the rate of congenital syphilis was 8.4 cases per 100,000 live births among Hispanics. Race/ethnicity for cases of congenital syphilis is based on the mother’s race/ethnicity. This rate was 3.1 times the rate among whites (2.7 cases per 100,000 live births).

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Photo of latino couple

Viral Hepatitis


Acute Hepatitis A

Through 2007, Hepatitis A rates among Hispanics were generally higher than those of other racial/ethnic populations. However, in 2011, the rate of hepatitis A among Hispanics was 0.53 cases per 100,000 population, the lowest rate recorded for this group.

Acute Hepatitis B

In 2011, the rate of acute hepatitis B was lowest for Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders (0.4 cases per 100,000 population for each group).

Acute Hepatitis C

During 2002–2010, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis C remained below 0.5 cases per 100,000. The rate of hepatitis C among Hispanics increased 21.4% (to 0.17 case per 100,000 population in 2011).

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Tuberculosis (TB)


In 2010, 11,182 TB cases were reported to CDC from the 50 states and the District of Columbia. That same year, as in previous years, Hispanics or Latinos exceeded all other racial or ethnic groups with the largest percentage (29%) of total number of reported TB cases in the United States. Overall, 84% of all reported TB cases occurred in racial and ethnic minorities in 2010.

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