- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Available from https://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/index.html
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2017). Key substance use and mental health indicators in the United States: Results from the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (HHS Publication No. SMA 17-5044, NSDUH Series H-52). Retrieved from https://www. samhsa.gov/dataexternal icon
- Berman, AL. (2011). Estimating the population of survivors of suicide: Seeking an evidence base. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 41(1), 110–116.
- Brent D. (2010). What family studies teach us about suicidal behavior: implications for research, treatment, and prevention. Eur Psychiatry 25(5):260–263.
- Jordan J. (2001). Is suicide bereavement different? A reassessment of the literature. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 31(1): 91–102.
- Crosby AE, Sacks JJ. (1994). Exposure to suicide: Incidence and association with suicidal ideation and behavior – United States, 1994. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 32:321–328.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs):
- Johns MM, Lowry R, Andrzejewski J, et al. Transgender Identity and Experiences of Violence Victimization, Substance Use, Suicide Risk, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among High School Students — 19 States and Large Urban School Districts, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019; 68:67–71. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6803a3
- Annor FB, Zwald ML, Wilkinson A, et al. Characteristics of and Precipitating Circumstances Surrounding Suicide Among Persons Aged 10–17 Years — Utah, 2011–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018; 67:329–332. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6711a4.
- Johns MM, Lowry R, Rasberry CN, et al. Violence Victimization, Substance Use, and Suicide Risk Among Sexual Minority High School Students — United States, 2015–2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018; 67:1211–1215. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6743a4
- Kegler SR, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA. Firearm Homicides and Suicides in Major Metropolitan Areas — United States, 2012–2013 and 2015–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1233–1237. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6744a3.
- Leavitt RA, Ertl A, Sheats K, Petrosky E, Ivey-Stephenson A, Fowler KA. Suicides Among American Indian/Alaska Natives — National Violent Death Reporting System, 18 States, 2003–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:237–242. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6708a1.
- Peterson C, Stone DM, Marsh SM, et al. Suicide Rates by Major Occupational Group — 17 States, 2012 and 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018; 67: 1253–1260. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6745a1.
- Stone DM, Simon TR, Fowler KA, et al. Vital Signs: Trends in State Suicide Rates — United States, 1999–2016 and Circumstances Contributing to Suicide — 27 States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:617–624. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6722a1external icon.
- Zwald ML, Annor FB, Wilkinson A, et al. Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Among Students in Grades 8, 10, and 12 — Utah, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018; 67:451–454. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6715a4.
- Ivey-Stephenson AZ, Crosby AE, Jack SP, Haileyesus T, Kresnow-Sedacca M. Suicide Trends Among and Within Urbanization Levels by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Age Group, and Mechanism of Death — United States, 2001–2015. MMWR Surveill Summ 2017;66(No. SS-18):1–16. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6618a1.
- David-Ferdon C, Crosby AE, Caine ED, Hindman J, Reed J, Iskander J. CDC Public Health Grand Rounds: Preventing Suicide Through a Comprehensive Public Health Approach. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2016; 65(34):894–897.
- Nett RJ, Wittel TK, Holzbauer SM, Elchos BL, Campagnolo ER, Musgrave KJ, et al. Notes from the field: prevalence of risk factors for suicide among veterinarians – United States, 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015; 64(5): 131-132.
- Sullivan EM, Annest JL, Simon TR, Luo F, Dahlberg LL. Suicide Trends Among Persons Aged 10–24 Years — United States, 1994–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2015; 64(08): 201-205.
- Kegler SR, Mercy JA. Firearm Homicides and Suicides in Major Metropolitan Areas — United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013; 62(30): 597-602.
- Cochran J, Geltman PL, Ellis H, Brown C, Anderton S, Montour J, et al. Suicide and suicidal ideation among Bhutanese refugees–United States, 2009-2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013; 62(26): 533-536.
- Sullivan EM, Annest LL, Luo F, Simon TR, Dahlberg LL. Suicide among adults aged 35-64 years – United States, 1999-2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013; 62(17): 321-325.
- Crosby AE, Ortega L, Stevens MR. Suicides — United States, 2005–2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2013; 62(03): 179-183. (CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2013.)
- Crosby AE, Han B, Ortega LAG, Parks SE, Gfroerer J. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adults aged ≥ 18 years—United States, 2008-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2011; 60(SS13): 1-22.
- Crosby AE, Ortega L, Stevens MR. Suicides-United States, 1999-2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report2011;60(Suppl-1): 56-59. (CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2011)
- Newman S, Akre E, Bossarte R, Mack K, Crosby A. Suicides in national parks–United States, 2003-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2010; 59(47): 1546-1549.
Risk and Protective Factors Articles:
- McLean, J, Maxwell, M, Platt, S, Harris, F, and Jepson, R. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide and Suicidal Behaviour: a Literature Reviewexternal icon. Scottish Government Social Research. Edinborough. 2008.
- DeLeo D, Bertolote J, Lester, D. Self-directed violence. 2002. Chapter 7. In: Krug EG, Dahlberg LL., Mercy JA, Zwi A, Lozano R, eds. World report on violence and health pdf icon[239 KB, 30 Pages, Print Only]external icon. Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Goldsmith SK, Pellmar TC, Kleinman AM, Bunney WE, eds. Reducing suicide: a national imperativeexternal icon. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2002.
- U.S. Public Health Service. The surgeon general’s call to action to prevent suicideexternal icon. Washington DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 1999.
- Self-directed Violence Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Data Elements pdf icon[1.3 MB, 96 Pages, 508]
The definitions and data elements publication was developed to address the lack of uniform definitions and to improve and standardize data collected on self-directed violence.
- Preventing Suicide Fact Sheet pdf icon[590 KB, 2 Pages, 508]
CDC’s fact sheet that includes definitions, consequences, and prevention strategies for preventing suicide.
- Suicide Rising Across the US: Vital Signs Fact Sheet pdf icon[824 KB, 4 pages. 508]
The Vital Signs fact sheet featuring suicide trends and circumstances contributing to suicide.
- National Strategy for Suicide Preventionexternal icon
This revised national strategy emphasizes the role every American can play in protecting friends, family members, and colleagues from suicide. It also provides guidance for schools, businesses, health systems, clinicians, and many other sectors. This guidance takes into account nearly a decade of research and other advancements in the field since the last strategy was published.
- Preventing Suicide: A Technical Package of Policy, Programs, and Practices pdf icon[6.11 MB, 62 Pages, 508]
This technical package represents a select group of strategies based on the best available evidence to help communities and states sharpen their focus on prevention activities with the greatest potential to prevent suicide. Also available in Spanish pdf icon[34 MB, 64 Pages, 508]
- Preventing Suicide: A Resource for Media Professionals—Update 2017 [30 KB, 29 Pages, Print Only]external icon
This resource is a product of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Association for Suicide Prevention (IASP). It is addressed to media professionals who play a role in suicide prevention.
- Recommendations for Media Reporting on Suicide pdf icon[979 KB, 2 Pages, Print Only]external icon
This resource presents best practices for online media, message boards, bloggers and citizen journalists when covering suicide in the media.
- Strategic Direction for the Prevention of Suicidal Behavior: Promoting Individual, Family, and Community Connectedness to Prevent Suicidal Behavior pdf icon[507 KB, 12 Pages, 508]
This document describes a vision for CDC’s work to prevent fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior. Our key strategy is promoting individual, family, and community connectedness.
- The Relationship Between Bullying and Suicide: What We Know and What it Means for Schools pdf icon[4.7 MB, 10 Pages, 508]
This document provides concrete, action-oriented information to help improve schools’ understanding of and ability to prevent and respond to the problem of bullying and suicide-related behavior.
- World Health Organization Report on Preventing Suicide pdf icon[5.11 KB, 92 Pages, Print Only]external icon
Preventing suicide: A global imperative aims to increase awareness of the public health significance of suicide and suicide attempts, to make suicide prevention a higher priority on the global public health agenda, and to encourage and support countries to develop or strengthen comprehensive suicide prevention strategies in a multisector public health approach.
CDC Data Sources
- National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP)
NEISS-AIP provides nationally representative data about all types and causes of nonfatal injuries treated in United States hospital emergency departments. CDC uses NEISS-AIP data to generate national estimates of nonfatal injuries, including those related to self-harm.
- National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)
NAMCS collects data on the utilization and provision of ambulatory care services in hospital emergency and outpatient departments.
- National Inpatient Sample (NIS)external icon
The NIS is a database of hospital inpatient stays used to identify, track, and analyze national trends in health care utilization, access, charges, quality, and outcomes including injuries from suicide attempts.
- National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)
CDC funds the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico to gather, share, and link state-level data on violent deaths. NVDRS provides CDC and states with a more complete understanding of violent deaths. This enables policy makers and community leaders to make informed decisions about violence prevention programs, including those that address suicide.
- The National Vital Statistics System
The National Vital Statistics System is the oldest and most successful example of inter-governmental data sharing. This system includes nationwide data on deaths due to all causes, including suicide.
- Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)
CDC’s YRBSS monitors health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems, including suicide attempts and related behaviors, among 9th through 12th grade students in the United States.
- Ten Leading Causes of Death by Age Group, United States – 2017 image icon[245 KB, 1 Page, 508]
- Create your own leading causes of death chart through WISQARS.
- Web-based Injury Statistics Query And Reporting System (WISQARS)
CDC’s interactive, online database that provides fatal and nonfatal injury, violent death, and cost of injury data.
- WISQARS tutorials
- Create your own US state- or county-level map.
- WISQARS Data Visualization: Suicide Data on Males and Females
- WISQARS Data Visualization: Suicide Data by Age Group
- WISQARS Data Visualization: Suicide Data by Mechanism
- WISQARS Data Visualization: Suicide Data by Race
- WISQARS Data Visualization: Trends in State Suicide Rates
Other Federal Data Sources
- National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)external icon
NSDUH provides up-to-date information on substance use, mental health conditions, and suicide-related behaviors in the United States.
Non-Federal Data Sources
- Global Health Observatory (GHO) Dataexternal icon
GHO is WHO’s gateway to health-related statistics for more than 1,000 indicators for its 194 Member States.
- Coping with a Disaster or Traumatic Event
CDC’s Web page on mental health during and after a disaster includes information on coping with the stress that results from natural and manmade traumatic events.
- Suicide and Violence Prevention among Gay and Bisexual Men
This CDC Web page provides suicide prevention resources and information for gay, bisexual, and other men who might encounter homophobia, harassment, and violent acts.
- Suicide Rising Across the US: CDC Vital Signs Report
This Vital Signs web page includes an MMWR Early Release on state suicide trends and circumstances contributing to suicide, a graphic factsheet and website, a media release, and social media tools featuring the topic of suicide.
- Mental Health
This page provides information on all of CDC’s work related to mental health.
- Suicide in Rural America
CDC’s web page on suicide in rural areas provides reports, a policy brief, a press release, and suicide prevention resources.
- Injury Center Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs)
CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control’s web page that contains information about funding opportunity announcements.
Other Federal Resources
- U.S. Department of Defense Suicide Prevention Officeexternal icon
The U.S. Department of Defense Suicide Prevention Office oversees the suicide prevention work across all branches of the military.
- U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Suicide Preventionexternal icon
The VA provides health and mental health services to U. S. veterans. This page provides information about mental health conditions, including suicide prevention, and what veterans can do to get help.
- Indian Health Service Suicide Prevention Programexternal icon
This national initiative to prevent suicide is based on fostering collaborations across tribes, tribal organizations, urban Indian organizations, and the entire Indian Health System.
- National Action Alliance for Suicide Preventionexternal icon
The National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is the public-private partnership advancing the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention pdf icon[4.93 MB, 184 Pages, Print Only]external icon.
- National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN)external icon
NCTSN works to raise the standard of care and improve access to services for traumatized children, their families, and communities throughout the United States.
- National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)external icon
NIMH is the lead federal agency for research on mental disorders.
- National Suicide Prevention Lifelineexternal icon
The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255) is a 24-hour, toll-free, confidential suicide prevention hotline available to anyone in suicidal crisis or emotional distress. Calls are routed to the nearest crisis center in a national network, where callers receive crisis counseling and mental health referrals.
- Programs and Practices: Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC)external icon
This registry, funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), identifies, reviews, and disseminates information about best practices that address specific objectives of the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Suicide Prevention Program (SAMHSA)external icon
SAMHSA is the Federal agency charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services to reduce illness, death, disability, and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses. .
- BeThe1Toexternal icon
This is the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline’s campaign for National Suicide Prevention Month and beyond, spreading the word about actions we can all take to prevent suicide.
Additional Online Resources
- American Association of Suicidology (AAS)external icon
AAS serves as a national clearinghouse for information on suicide. AAS promotes research, public awareness programs, public education, and training for professionals and volunteers.
- American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (AFSP)external icon
AFSP raises awareness, funds scientific research and provides resources and aid to those affected by suicide.
- The Jason Foundation, Inc. (JFI)external icon
JFI is dedicated to the prevention of the “silent epidemic” of youth suicide through educational and awareness programs that equip young people, educators, youth workers and parents with the tools and resources to help identify and assist at-risk youth.
- Jed Foundationexternal icon
The Jed Foundation is the nation’s leading organization working to promote emotional health and suicide prevention among college students.
- National Council for Suicide Prevention (NCSP)external icon
NCSP is a coalition of eight national organizations working to prevent suicide. NCSP’s mission is to advance suicide prevention through leadership, advocacy, and a collective voice.
- Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE)external icon
The mission of SAVE is to educate the public about suicide prevention, eliminate stigma, and to support those touched by suicide.
- Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC)external icon
SPRC is the nation’s only federally supported resource center devoted to advancing the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention by offering the best of science, skills, and practice.
- Training Institute for Suicide Assessment and Clinical Interviewing (TISA)external icon
This website is designed specifically for mental health professionals, substance-abuse counselors, school counselors, primary-care physicians, and psychiatric nurses who are looking for information on the development of skills in suicide prevention, crisis intervention, and advanced clinical interviewing.
- The Trevor Projectexternal icon
The Trevor Project is the leading national organization providing crisis intervention and suicide prevention services to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning (LGBTQ) young people ages 13-24.
- Coping with Stress After a Traumatic Event pdf icon[570.2 KB, 2 Pages, 508]
- SAMHSA Disaster Distressexternal icon
- American Psychological Associationexternal icon
- Disaster Distress Helpline: 1-800-985-5990
- National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK (1-888-628-9454 for Spanish-speaking callers)
- Youth Mental Health Line: 1-888-568-1112
- Child-Help USA: 1-800-422-4453 (24 hour toll free) Coping With Stress
Contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline
- Call 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255)
- Use the online Lifeline Crisis Chatexternal icon.
Both are free and confidential. You’ll be connected to a skilled, trained counselor in your area.
For more information, visit the National Suicide Prevention Lifelineexternal icon.