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Key Findings: Are Women Getting Enough Folic Acid?
Research shows that some women are still not getting enough folic acid in their diets to lower the risk of a neural tube defect. Read the findings from a CDC study to learn more.
(Published Date: May 15, 2018)

Key Findings: Improving Healthcare Counseling Among Hispanic Women Before They Become Pregnant
The Journal of Women’s Health published a study that looked at healthcare counseling among Hispanic women on taking folic acid before and during pregnancy and medicine use during pregnancy.
(Published Date: March 1, 2018)

Key Findings: Folate Deficiency is Common in Women of Reproductive Age
The Journal of Nutrition has published a study that looks at the amount of folate and vitamin B12 in the blood of non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Belize.
(Published Date: August 18, 2017)

Key Findings: The Promotora de Salud Model Promotes Positive Health Behavior Change
The Journal of Women’s Health has published a new study examining the use of the Promotora de Salud model for folic acid education in Hispanic communities.
(Published Date: January 9, 2017)

Key Findings: Cost savings of spina bifida prevention after folic acid fortification in the United States
Recently, the American Journal of Preventive Medicine published a new study looking at the costs associated with a United States requirement that folic acid (a B vitamin) be added to all cereal grain products labeled as enriched (also called folic acid fortification)
(Published Date: January 11, 2016)

Folic Acid Fortification
Folic acid fortification continues to prevent neural tube defects.
(Published Date: January 2015)

Folic acid use among pregnant women who have had a past pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect
CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report has published a new study looking at folic acid use before pregnancy in women who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect (NTD).
(Published Date: January 2015)

Key Findings: Lack of Vitamins Containing Folic Acid and Diabetes-Associated Birth Defects
Recently, the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology published a CDC study: “Lack of Periconceptional Vitamins or Supplements That Contain Folic Acid and Diabetes Mellitus-Associated Birth Defects”.
(Published Date: December 2014)

Women Need 400 Micrograms of Folic Acid Every Day
The B vitamin folic acid helps prevent birth defects. If a woman has enough folic acid in her body before and while she is pregnant, her baby is less likely to have a major birth defect of the brain or spine.
(Published Date: December 2014)

Folic Acid Can Help Prevent Certain Birth Defects
Learn how to get healthy before and during pregnancy to increase your chances of having a healthy baby.
(Published: January 8, 2018)

Pop Quiz!
How much do you know about Folic Acid? Take our quiz and find out.
(Published: January 7, 2013)

The Importance of Folic Acid
Read Anifa’s story and find out what CDC is doing to help.
(Published: May 7, 2012)

Scientific Articles

* Articles are listed in order of date published

Fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid in the United States: an overview of the evidence
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014;1312:8-14.
Hamner HC, Tinker SC.
[Read Summary]

Modeling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid: the potential impact on exceeding the tolerable upper intake level for folic acid, NHANES 2001-2008
Food & Nutrition Research 2013;57:19146.
Hamner HC, Tinker SC, Berry RJ, Mulinare J.
[Read Summary]

Modeling fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid and the potential impact on Mexican-American women with lower acculturation
Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(5):912-21.
Hamner HC, Tinker SC, Flores AL, Mulinare J, Weakland AP, Dowling NF.
[Read Summary]

Publications

Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects
Front Genet.2013; 4:223.
Fisk Green R, Byrne J, Crider KS, Gallagher M, Koontz D, Berry RJ.
[Read Summary]

Preconception folic acid supplementation and risk for chromosome 21 nondisjunction: A report from the National Down Syndrome Project
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 2013;161(3):438-44.
Hollis ND, Allen EG, Oliver TR, Tinker SW, Druschel C, Hobbs CA, O’Leary LA, Romitti PA, Royle MH, Torfs CP, Freeman SB, Sherman SL, Bean LJH.
[Read Summary]

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The impact of folic acid intake on the association among diabetes mellitus, obesity, and spina bifida
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 209:239.e1-8.
Parker SE, Yazdy MM, Tinker SC, Mitchell AA, Werler MM.
[Read Summary]

Neural tube defects in Latin America and the impact of fortification: a literature review
Public Health Nutr.2013; 6:1-14.
Rosenthal J, Casas J, Taren D, Alverson CJ, Flores A, Frias J.
[Read Summary]

Estimate of the potential impact of folic acid fortification of corn masa flour on the prevention of neural tube defects
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2013;97(10):649-57.
Tinker SC, Devine O, Mai C, Hamner HC, Reefhuis J, Gilboa SM, Dowling NF, Honein MA.
[Read Summary]

Folic Acid Intake Among U.S. Women Aged 15-44 Years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006
American Journal of Preventive Medicine. March 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Tinker SC, Cogswell ME, Devine O, Berry RJ.
[Read Summary]

Predicted Contribution of Folic Acid Fortification of Corn Masa Flour to the Usual Folic Acid Intake for the US Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2004
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; January 2009; 89(1):305-15
Hamner HC, Mulinare J, Cogswell ME, Flores AL, Boyle CA, Prue CE, Wang CY, Carriquiry AL, Devine O.
[Read summary ]

Trends in the Postfortification Prevalence of Spina Bifida and Anencephaly in the United States
Birth Defects Research (Part A), Clinical and Molecular Teratology; 2008; 82:527-532
Boulet SL, Yang QH, Mai C, Kirby RS, Collins JS, Robbins JM, Meyer R, Canfield MA, Mulinare J.
[Read summary ]

Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid Among Women of Childbearing Age — United States, 2007
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; January 11, 2008; 57(01);5-8
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
[Read article]

Trends in Blood Folate and Vitamin B-12 Concentrations in the United States, 1988-2004
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 2007; 86:718-27
Pfeiffer CM, Johnson CL, Jain RB, Yetley EA, Picciano MF, Rader JI, Fisher KD, Mulinare J, Osterloh JD
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Decline in the Prevalence of Spina Bifida and Anencephaly by Race/Ethnicity: 1995-2002
Pediatrics; 2005 September; 116:580-6
Williams LJ, Rasmussen SA, Flores A, Kirby RS, Edmonds LD
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Folic Acid and the Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects
New England Journal of Medicine; 2004 May 20; 350:2209-11; author reply -11
Czeizel AE
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Prevention of Neural Tube Defects with Folic Acid in China
New England Journal of Medicine; 1999; 341 (20):1485-90
Berry RJ, Li Z, Erickson JD, Li S, Moore CA, Want H, Mulinare J, Zhao P, Wong LY, Gindler J, Hong SX, Correa A, Hao L, Gunter E
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Recommendations for use of Folic Acid to Reduce Number of Spina Bifida Cases and Other Neural Tube Defects
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; 1992; 41(RR-14):1-7
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: Results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group
Lancet; 1991; 338:131-7
[Read summary ]

Use of Folic Acid for Prevention of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects — 1983-1991
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; 1991; 40:513-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
[Read summary ]

All Articles

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