School changes – helping children with ADHD
Many children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with school. Recently, children have faced a variety of changes in the way that they attend school. Some might be attending virtual classes; others might attend school in-person with many new rules. To help your child with ADHD adjust to these changes, learn about the resources available for parents.
ADHD and schools
Children with ADHD might experience more obstacles in their path to success than the average student.
Most children with ADHD receive some school services. This can mean special education services, such as individual or small group instruction with a special education teacher; or accommodations, such as changing how assignments, tasks, and tests are done, extra help with remembering and organizing work, and frequent communication. Together, teachers and parents can help children with ADHD succeed in school.
A changing school environment
In the recent past, many children experienced changes in their learning environment. Last spring, many schools switched from in-person schooling to distance schooling, including learning at home and online. Some schools continued with virtual-only schooling, others had a mix of in-person and virtual schooling, and some returned to in-person schooling, but with additional rules in place. The current school year may mean more changes.
School can present challenges for many children with ADHD.pdf iconexternal icon Because ADHD symptoms include difficulty with attention regulation, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which can affect planning, organizing, and managing behavior, many children with ADHD struggle with change. Here are some of the challenges that children with ADHD can face:
- Physical activity and movement are important for all children, but especially so for children with ADHD. Rules about keeping distance and more time spent with virtual learning can mean sitting still without moving for longer periods of time. Changes in after-school activities may mean fewer opportunities for active group play. Finding time to move may be especially important for children who struggle with hyperactivity.
- Children with ADHD struggle more with boredom and putting mental effort into challenging tasks. Virtual learning or in-person school with more rules may lack the novelty and excitement. Teachers may need to find new ways to keep children with ADHD from being bored and keep them engaged in learning.
- Children with ADHD are more likely than their peers to have some difficulties with social relationships, so having fewer opportunities to interact freely during the day may mean they need other ways to practice social skills and build on relationships.
- Transitions can be challenging for children with ADHD, and having to spend time doing schoolwork, homework, and family activities in the same space where parents may also have to do their own work can create additional stress for students and parents.
- Children with ADHD are likely to have other disorders in addition to ADHD, which can make coping with stress, change, and social isolation associated with virtual learning even more difficult. They may need additional support. [Link underlined text to new feature]
With changes in how school is being conducted, there is also the possibility that children who have special needs are not getting the services they need. The U.S. Department of Education has issued information for implementing special education services for schools that use distance learning.pdf iconexternal icon
However, some children with ADHD may respond positively to some of the changes. For example, virtual learning may provide fewer distractions for children who find it more difficult to tune out other people around them. More structured classrooms with more distance between students might help some children focus. With fewer activities in their daily schedules, some children may have more time to get the sleep they need. Since each child may react differently to changes in their environment, parents, teachers, and students need support that works for each individual child.
Working to help parents, students, and teachers
To help parents and students adapt to the changing environment, the National Resource Center on ADHD (NRC), a funded CDC partner, has worked to create resources and supportexternal icon for parents. These resources include advice for parents and teachers on
- creating enough structure so that the child can learn new routines,
- keeping the child engaged with learning,
- managing difficulty with attention while coping with changes,
- setting up the home learning environment,
- helping children stay connected with other children, and
- keeping children healthy and active.
Caring for a child with special needs can mean extra challenges. Parents of children with ADHD may experience extra stress from supporting their child while coping with changes and may need additional help. The NRC has created a parent toolkit,external icon including information and resources to help parents understand more about ADHD and how to support their child, and tips and advice that help parents with their own stress during uncertain times.external icon
Schools are a part of ADHD treatment
To meet the needs of children with ADHD, schools can
- Be part of effective treatment plans for children with ADHD; and
- Provide special education services or accommodations.
The American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations for ADHD treatment state that school is a necessary part of any treatment plan. Behavioral classroom management focusing on positive responses is an evidence-based treatment for ADHD and can complement parent training in behavior management. The NRC also provides some tips for receiving treatment via when in-person treatment is not possible. Parents, teachers, healthcare providers, and older children and teens can collaborate to develop an approach that works best for each student.
- CDC: Information on ADHD
- CDC: Children’s Mental Health
- National Resource Center on ADHDexternal icon
- Ask the Expert Webinar: Teaching students how to work from homeexternal icon
- All Things ADHD Podcast: Online Learning for Children with ADHDexternal icon
- Return to School Roadmap: Development and Implementation of Individualized Education Programs (Sept. 30, 2021) – Individuals with Disabilities Education Actexternal icon