Articles and Key Findings About ADHD
National Prevalence of ADHD and Treatment: New statistics for children and adolescents, 2016
As of 2016, 6.1 million children aged 2-17 years living in the U.S. had been diagnosed with ADHD, which is similar to previous estimates.
(Published: February 14, 2018)
What Types of Treatment Do Children with ADHD Receive?
Learn about the national rates of ADHD medication, behavior therapy, and other types of treatment in children with ADHD aged 4 to 17 years in 2014.
(Published: November 10, 2017)
National profile of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in young children
Learn about the rates of diagnosis, medication, and behavior treatment in children aged 2 to 5 years in 2011-2012
(Published: July 18, 2017)
Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Problems – What Works?
Learn about current evidence on the most effective treatments for behavior problems in children
(Published: May 1, 2017)
ADHD Across the Lifetime
ADHD symptoms often start in childhood and continue into adulthood, but they may look different in adults.
(Published October 16, 2023)
Where Children Live Might Impact ADHD
Learn what CDC is doing to understand differences in ADHD diagnosis and treatment.
(Published October 18, 2022)
Not Just ADHD?
Learn more about how to help children who have ADHD and other disorders
(Published September 28, 2021)
ADHD and School Changes
How to help children with ADHD with changes in schooling
(Published: October 5, 2020)
Behavior Therapy First for Young Children with ADHD
Learn about using parent behavior therapy first to help young children with ADHD.
(Published: February 3, 2020)
Protecting the Health of Children with ADHD
Learn about health risks associated with ADHD and about healthy habits that can help protect children from long-term health risks.
(Published: October 8, 2019)
Is it ADHD?
Learn about the symptoms of ADHD and what to do if you’re concerned that your child might have this disorder.
(Published: August 28, 2019)
Vital Signs: ADHD in Young Children
Use recommended treatment first.
(Published: May 3, 2016)
* These CDC scientific articles are listed in order of date published
The link will take you to a short summary of the article. The full article is available to subscribers of the publication's service.
Trends in Prescription Stimulant Fills Among Commercially Insured Children and Adults — United States, 2016–2021
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); 2023; 73(13); 327–332.
Melissa L. Danielson, Michele K. Bohm, Kimberly Newsome, Angelika H. Claussen, Jennifer W Kaminski, Scott D. Grosse, Lila Siwakoti, Aziza Arifkhanova, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Lara R. Robinson
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Surveillance of ADHD Among Children in the United States: Validity and Reliability of Parent Report of Provider Diagnosis
Journal of Attention Disorder, published online Nov 3, 2022
Robyn A. Cree, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Melissa L Danielson, Valentine Wanga, Joseph Holbrook, Kate Flory, Lorraine F Kubicek, Steven W. Evans, Julie Sarno Owens, Steven P. Cuffe
State-Level Estimates of the Prevalence of Parent-Reported ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2016 to 2019.
Melissa L. Danielson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Kimberly Newsome, Sana N. Charania, Russell F. McCord, Michael D. Kogan, Stephen J. Blumberg, Journal of Attention Disorders, 2022; 26(13), 1685-1697.
Factors Associated With Bullying Victimization and Bullying Perpetration in Children and Adolescents With ADHD: 2016 to 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health
Journal of Attention Disorders, published online April 5, 2022
Carolina Cuba Bustinza, Ryan E. Adams, Angelika H. Claussen, Daniel Vitucci, Melissa L. Danielson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Sana N. Charania, Kaila Yamamoto, Nichole Nidey, Tanya E. Froehlich
Academic, Interpersonal, Recreational, and Family Impairment in Youth with Tourette Syndrome and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Child Psychiatry and Human Development. Published online January 1, 2021
Emily J. Ricketts, Sara Beth Wolicki, Melissa L. Danielson, Michelle Rozenman, Joseph F. McGuire, John Piacentini, Jonathan W. Mink, John T. Walkup, Douglas W. Woods, Rebecca H. Bitsko
Changes in Provider Type and Prescription Refills Among Privately Insured Children and Youth With ADHD
Journal of Attention Disorder. Published online September 18, 2020
Laura C. Hart, Scott D. Grosse, Rebecca A. Baum, Alex R. Kemper
Community-Based Prevalence of Externalizing and Internalizing Disorders Among School-Aged Children and Adolescents in Four Geographically Dispersed School Districts in the United States.
Child Psychiatry & Human Development. Published online July 31, 2020
Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Sana N. Charania, Angelika H. Claussen, Robert E. McKeown, Steven P. Cuffe, Julie Sarno Owens, Steven W. Evans, Lorraine Kubicek & Kate Flory
Symptom Level Associations Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and School Performance.
Clinical Pediatrics. Published online May 22, 2020.
Megan Rigoni, Lynn Zanardi Blevins, David C. Rettew, D. C., Laurin Kasehagen
Prevalence and Trends of Developmental Disabilities among Children in the US: 2009–2017.
Pediatrics, 2019; 144(4):e20190811
Benjamin Zablotsky, Lindsey I. Black, Matthew J. Maenner, Laura A. Schieve, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Stephen J. Blumberg, Michael D. Kogan, Coleen A. Boyle
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Treatment Patterns and Costs Among Children Aged 2 to 17 Years With ADHD in New York State Medicaid in 2013
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online December 14, 2018
Liqiong Guo, Melissa L. Danielson, Lindsay Cogan, Leah Hines, Brian Armour
Predictors of Receipt of School Services in a National Sample of Youth With ADHD
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online December 10, 2018
George J. DuPaul, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Melissa L. Danielson, and Susanna N. Visser
Adherence to recommended care guidelines in the treatment of preschool-age Medicaid-enrolled children with a diagnosis of ADHD.
Psychiatric Services. Published online October 30, 2018.
Alex Moran, Nicoleta Serban, Melissa L. Danielson, Scott D. Grosse, Steven P. Cuffe.
Prevalence of Parent-Reported ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2016.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2018; 47(2), 199-212.
Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Reem M. Ghandour, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan, Stephen J. Blumberg
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Prescription Claims Among Privately Insured Women Aged 15–44 Years — United States, 2003–2015
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); January 19, 2018; 67(2); 66–70.
Kayla N. Anderson, Elizabeth C. Ailes, Melissa Danielson, Jennifer N. Lind, Sherry L. Farr, Cheryl S. Broussard, Sarah C. Tinker.
A National Description of Treatment among U.S. Children and Adolescents with ADHD.
Journal of Pediatrics, 2018; 192, 240–246.e1.
Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna S. Visser, A Chronis-Tuscano, George J. DuPaul.
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Latent Class Analysis of ADHD Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Comorbidities
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2018; 39(1),10–19.
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D. Bramlett, Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Stephen J. Blumberg
A National Profile of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment Among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2017, 38(7), 455–464.
Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna S. Visser, Mary Margaret M. Gleason, Georgina Peacock, Angelika H. Claussen, Stephen Blumberg.
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Treated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Increased from 2009 to 2015 Among School-Aged Children and Adolescents in the United States
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2017; 27(8):731-734.
Kwame A. Nyarko, Scott D. Grosse, Melissa L. Danielson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Susanna N. Visser, Stuart K. Shapira
Vital Signs: National and State-Specific Patterns of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Among Insured Children Aged 2–5 Years — United States, 2008–2014
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); May 3, 2016; 56(16)
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Mark L. Wolraich, Michael Fox, Scott D. Grosse, Linda A. Valle, Joseph R. Holbrook, Angelika H. Claussen, Georgina Peacock
Demographic Differences Among a National Sample of US Youth With Behavioral Disorders
Clinical Pediatrics, 2016; 55(14), 1358-1362.
Susanna N. Visser, Emily L. Deubler, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, and Melissa L. Danielson,
Persistence of Parent-Reported ADHD Symptoms From Childhood Through Adolescence in a Community Sample.
Journal of Attention Disorders. 2016 Jan;20(1):11-20
Joseph R. Holbrook, Steven P. Cuffe , Bo Cai, Susanna N. Visser, Melinda S. Forthofer, Matteo Bottai, Andrew Ortaglia, Robert E. McKeown
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ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity: Functional outcomes in a school-based sample of children.
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online November 25, 2015.
Stephen P. Cuffe, Susanna N. Visser, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Lorie L. Geryk, Mark L. Wolraich, Robert E. McKeown
Diagnostic experiences of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
National Health Statistics Report, 81, 1-7, published online September 3, 2015.
Susanna N. Visser, Benjaming Zablotsky, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, & Rebecca H. Bitsko
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Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with Special Health Care Needs
Journal of Pediatrics, 2015; 166:1423-30.
Susanna N. Visser, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Melissa L. Danielson, Reem M. Gandhour, Stephen J. Blumberg, Laura Schieve, Joseph R. Holbrook, Mark L. Wolraich, Stephen P. Cuffe.
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The impact of case definition on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prevalence estimates.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 2015, 54(1): 53–61.
Robert E. McKeown, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Stephen P. Cuffe, Mark L. Wolraich, Susanna N. Visser
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Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosed and Medicated ADHD Disorder: United States, 2003—2011.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 2014,53(1):34–46.e2.
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan, Reem M. Ghandour, Ruth Perou, Stephen J. Blumberg
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Convergent validity of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis: A cross-study comparison.
JAMA Pediatrics 2013; 167(7):674-675.
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Ruth Perou, Stephen J. Blumberg
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The prevalence of ADHD: Its diagnosis and treatment in four school districts across two states
Journal of Attention Disorders. October 2014; 18 (7), 563-575.
Mark L. Wolraich, Robert E. McKeown, Susanna N. Visser, David Bard, Steven Cuffe, Barbara Neas Lorie L. Geryk, Melissa Doffing, Matteo Bottai, Ann J. Abramowitz, Laoma Beck, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa Danielson
Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present.