Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content


Highlighted Articles

National Prevalence of ADHD and Treatment: New statistics for children and adolescents, 2016
As of 2016, 6.1 million children aged 2-17 years living in the U.S. had been diagnosed with ADHD, which is similar to previous estimates.
(Published: February 14, 2018)

A Growing Number of Reproductive-Aged Women are Filling Prescriptions for ADHD Medicine
The percentage of privately-insured U.S. women aged 15-44 years who filled a prescription for a medicine to treat ADHD increased nearly 350% between 2003 and 2015.
(Published: January 18, 2018)

What Types of Treatment Do Children with ADHD Receive?
Learn about the national rates of ADHD medication, behavior therapy, and other types of treatment in children with ADHD aged 4 to 17 years in 2014.
(Published: November 10, 2017)

National profile of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in young children
Learn about the rates of diagnosis, medication, and behavior treatment in children aged 2 to 5 years in 2011-2012
(Published: July 18, 2017)

Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Problems – What Works?
Learn about current evidence on the most effective treatments for behavior problems in children
(Published: May 1, 2017)

Impact of ADHD and Other Mental Conditions
Data from a community study show that children with ADHD and other conditions are more likely to have problems with friendships and to get into trouble in school or with the police.
(Published November 25, 2015)

How US Children are Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
The first national study presenting greater detail on how ADHD diagnoses take place among a representative sample of children who have ADHD, as described by their parents.
(Published September 3, 2015)

Medication and Behavioral Therapy for ADHD
Patterns of ADHD treatment among children with special health care needs, 2009-10.
(Published April 1, 2015)

Estimates of ADHD Change Depending on Which ADHD Criteria Are Applied
Using more criteria for ADHD decreases the percentage of children who fit the diagnosis.
(Published November 11, 2014)

Persistence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
Data from a community sample show that certain ADHD symptoms can often last into adolescence.
(Published July 3, 2014)

Trends in ADHD Diagnosis and Medication Treatment 2003-2011
Data on trends and age of diagnosis across 3 survey time points.
(Published November 22, 2013)

ADHD Diagnosis
Parent report is a valid measure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.
(Published: May 14, 2013)

Is it ADHD?
Learn about the symptoms of ADHD and what to do if you’re concerned that your child might have this disorder.
(Published: October 5, 2018)

Behavior Therapy for ADHD
Do you have a young child with ADHD? Experts recommend parents receive training in behavior therapy. Learn specific ways to better manage your child’s ADHD.
(Published: October 25, 2016)

Learn More About ADHD – It’s the First Step
Learning more about ADHD is the first step to an accurate diagnosis and effective treatment for individuals and families, as well as for the professionals who treat and support them.
(Published: October 11, 2016)

Vital Signs: ADHD in Young Children
Use recommended treatment first.
(Published: May 3, 2016)

Behavior Therapy First for Young Children with ADHD
Learn about using parent behavior therapy first to help young children with ADHD.
(Published: October 12, 2015)

Smoking in Pregnancy: A Possible Risk for ADHD
CDC looked at any association between smoking during pregnancy and ADHD.
(Published: October 10, 2014)

ADHD: Keeping Track of the Numbers
Discover how CDC’s latest research helps us all understand how ADHD impacts children and families.
(Published: November 22, 2013)

Scientific Articles

* These CDC scientific articles are listed in order of date published


When you click “Read summary”

The link will take you to a short summary of the article. The full article is available to subscribers of the publication's service.

Prevalence of Parent-Reported ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2016.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2018; 47(2), 199-212.
Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Reem M. Ghandour, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan, Stephen J. Blumberg
[Read article]

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Prescription Claims Among Privately Insured Women Aged 15–44 Years — United States, 2003–2015
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); January 19, 2018; 67(2); 66–70.
Kayla N. Anderson, Elizabeth C. Ailes, Melissa Danielson, Jennifer N. Lind, Sherry L. Farr, Cheryl S. Broussard, Sarah C. Tinker.
[Read key findings] [Read article]

A National Description of Treatment among U.S. Children and Adolescents with ADHD. 
Journal of Pediatrics, 2018; 192, 240–246.e1.
Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna S. Visser, A Chronis-Tuscano, George J. DuPaul.
[Read key findings]

Latent Class Analysis of ADHD Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Comorbidities
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2018; 39(1),10–19.
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D. Bramlett, Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Stephen J. Blumberg
[Read summary]

A National Profile of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment Among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2017, 38(7), 455–464.
Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna S. Visser, Mary Margaret M. Gleason, Georgina Peacock, Angelika H. Claussen, Stephen Blumberg.
[Read key findings]

Treated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Increased from 2009 to 2015 Among School-Aged Children and Adolescents in the United States
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 27(8):731-734.
Kwame A. Nyarko, Scott D. Grosse, Melissa L. Danielson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Susanna N. Visser, Stuart K. Shapira
[Read summary]

Vital Signs: National and State-Specific Patterns of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Among Insured Children Aged 2–5 Years — United States, 2008–2014
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); May 3, 2016; 56(16)
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Mark L. Wolraich, Michael Fox, Scott D. Grosse, Linda A. Valle, Joseph R. Holbrook, Angelika H. Claussen, Georgina Peacock
[Read article]

Demographic Differences Among a National Sample of US Youth With Behavioral Disorders
Clinical Pediatrics, 2016; 55(14), 1358-1362.
Susanna N. Visser, Emily L. Deubler, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, and Melissa L. Danielson,
[Read extract]

ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity: Functional outcomes in a school-based sample of children.
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online November 25, 2015.
Stephen P. Cuffe, Susanna N. Visser, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Lorie L. Geryk, Mark L. Wolraich, Robert E. McKeown
[Read key findings] [Read summary]

The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2015; 85(5), 504-513.
Terri Lewis, David C. Schwebel, Marc N. Elliott, Susanna N. Visser, Sara L. Toomey, Katie A. McLaughlin, Paula Cuccaro, Susan Tortolero Emery, Stephen W. Banspach, Mark A. Schuster.
[Read summary]

Diagnostic experiences of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
National Health Statistics Report, 81, 1-7, published online September 3, 2015.
Susanna N. Visser, Benjaming Zablotsky, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, & Rebecca H. Bitsko
[Read key findings] [Read article]

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with Special Health Care Needs
Journal of Pediatrics, 2015; 166:1423-30.
Susanna N. Visser, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Melissa L. Danielson, Reem M. Gandhour, Stephen J. Blumberg, Laura Schieve, Joseph R. Holbrook, Mark L. Wolraich,  Stephen P. Cuffe.
[Read key findings] [Read article]

Student-Perceived School Climate Is Associated With ADHD Medication Treatment Among Adolescents in Medicaid
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online February 20, 2015 DOI: 10.1177/1087054715569601
Susanna N. Visser, Dennis Kramer, Angela B. Snyder, Joyce Sebian, Garry McGiboney, Arden Handler
[Read summary]

The impact of case definition on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prevalence estimates.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 2015, 54(1): 53–61.
Robert E. McKeown, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Stephen P. Cuffe, Mark L. Wolraich, Susanna N. Visser
[Read key findings] [Read summary]

Persistence of Parent-Reported ADHD Symptoms From Childhood Through Adolescence in a Community Sample.
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online 3 July 2014 DOI: 10.1177/1087054714539997
Joseph R. Holbrook, Steven P. Cuffe , Bo Cai, Susanna N. Visser, Melinda S. Forthofer, Matteo Bottai, Andrew Ortaglia, Robert E. McKeown
[Read key findings] [Read summary]

Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosed and Medicated ADHD Disorder: United States, 2003—2011.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry;  2014,53(1):34–46.e2.
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan, Reem M. Ghandour, Ruth Perou, Stephen J. Blumberg
[Read key findings] [Read article] [Listen to a podcast by the journal discussing the study]

Convergent validity of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis: A cross-study comparison.
JAMA Pediatrics 2013; 167(7):674-675.
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Ruth Perou, Stephen J. Blumberg
[Read key findings] [Read article]

State-Based and Demographic Variation in Parent-Reported Medication Rates for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2007–2008
Preventing Chronic Disease, 2013;10:20073
Susanna N. Visser, Stephen J. Blumberg, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Michael D. Kogan
[Read article]

The prevalence of ADHD: Its diagnosis and treatment in four school districts across two states
Journal of Attention Disorders. October 2014; 18 (7), 563-575.
Mark L. Wolraich, Robert E. McKeown, Susanna N. Visser, David Bard, Steven Cuffe, Barbara Neas Lorie L. Geryk, Melissa Doffing, Matteo Bottai, Ann J. Abramowitz, Laoma Beck, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa Danielson
[Read key findings] [Read article]

Increasing Prevalence of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children – United States, 2003 and 2007
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); November 12, 2010 / 59(44);1439-1443
[Read article]

Unmet Health Care Needs Among CSHCN With Neurologic Conditions
Pediatrics, 2009; 124 Suppl. 4; pp. S343 -S351.
Rebecca H. Bitsko, Susanna N. Visser, Laura A. Schieve, Danielle S. Ross, David J. Thurman, Ruth Perou
[Read article]

Diagnosed Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability: United States, 2004-2006
Vital and Health Statistics; July 2008; Series 10, Number 237
[Read article]

Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2006
Vital and Health Statistics; September 2007; Series 10 Number 234, Appendix III, Table VI
[Read article]

National Estimates and Factors Associated With Medication Treatment for Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Pediatrics; Vol. 119 Supplement February 2007, pp. S99-S106
Susanna N. Visser, MS, Catherine A. Lesesne, PhD, MPH and Ruth Perou, PhD
[Read article]

Mental Health in the United States: Prevalence of Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder — United States, 2003
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; September 2, 2005; 54(34); 842-847
[Read article]

All Articles

Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present.