Articles and Key Findings About ADHD

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Key Findings

National Prevalence of ADHD and Treatment: New statistics for children and adolescents, 2016
As of 2016, 6.1 million children aged 2-17 years living in the U.S. had been diagnosed with ADHD, which is similar to previous estimates.
(Published: February 14, 2018)

A Growing Number of Reproductive-Aged Women are Filling Prescriptions for ADHD Medicine
The percentage of privately-insured U.S. women aged 15-44 years who filled a prescription for a medicine to treat ADHD increased nearly 350% between 2003 and 2015.
(Published: January 18, 2018)

What Types of Treatment Do Children with ADHD Receive?
Learn about the national rates of ADHD medication, behavior therapy, and other types of treatment in children with ADHD aged 4 to 17 years in 2014.
(Published: November 10, 2017)

National profile of ADHD diagnosis and treatment in young children
Learn about the rates of diagnosis, medication, and behavior treatment in children aged 2 to 5 years in 2011-2012
(Published: July 18, 2017)

Treatment of Disruptive Behavior Problems – What Works?
Learn about current evidence on the most effective treatments for behavior problems in children
(Published: May 1, 2017)

Impact of ADHD and Other Mental Conditions
Data from a community study show that children with ADHD and other conditions are more likely to have problems with friendships and to get into trouble in school or with the police.
(Published November 25, 2015)

How US Children are Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
The first national study presenting greater detail on how ADHD diagnoses take place among a representative sample of children who have ADHD, as described by their parents.
(Published September 3, 2015)

Medication and Behavioral Therapy for ADHD
Patterns of ADHD treatment among children with special health care needs, 2009-10.
(Published April 1, 2015)

Estimates of ADHD Change Depending on Which ADHD Criteria Are Applied
Using more criteria for ADHD decreases the percentage of children who fit the diagnosis.
(Published November 11, 2014)

Persistence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
Data from a community sample show that certain ADHD symptoms can often last into adolescence.
(Published July 3, 2014)

Trends in ADHD Diagnosis and Medication Treatment 2003-2011
Data on trends and age of diagnosis across 3 survey time points.
(Published November 22, 2013)

ADHD Diagnosis
Parent report is a valid measure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.
(Published: May 14, 2013)

Featured Articles

Behavior Therapy First for Young Children with ADHD
Learn about using parent behavior therapy first to help young children with ADHD.
(Published: February 3, 2020)

Protecting the Health of Children with ADHD
Learn about health risks associated with ADHD and about healthy habits that can help protect children from long-term health risks.
(Published: October 8, 2019)

Is it ADHD?
Learn about the symptoms of ADHD and what to do if you’re concerned that your child might have this disorder.
(Published: August 28, 2019)

Vital Signs: ADHD in Young Children
Use recommended treatment first.
(Published: May 3, 2016)

Scientific Articles

* These CDC scientific articles are listed in order of date published

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Symptom Level Associations Between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and School Performance.
Clinical Pediatrics. Published online May 22, 2020.
Megan Rigoni, Lynn Zanardi Blevins, David C. Rettew, D. C., Laurin Kasehagen
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Prevalence and Trends of Developmental Disabilities among Children in the US: 2009–2017.
Pediatrics, 2019; 144(4):e20190811
Benjamin Zablotsky, Lindsey I. Black, Matthew J. Maenner, Laura A. Schieve, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Stephen J. Blumberg, Michael D. Kogan, Coleen A. Boyle
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Treatment Patterns and Costs Among Children Aged 2 to 17 Years With ADHD in New York State Medicaid in 2013
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online December 14, 2018
Liqiong Guo, Melissa L. Danielson, Lindsay Cogan, Leah Hines, Brian Armour
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Predictors of Receipt of School Services in a National Sample of Youth With ADHD
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online December 10, 2018
George J. DuPaul, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, Melissa L. Danielson, and Susanna N. Visser
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Adherence to recommended care guidelines in the treatment of preschool-age Medicaid-enrolled children with a diagnosis of ADHD.
Psychiatric Services. Published online October 30, 2018.
Alex Moran, Nicoleta Serban, Melissa L. Danielson, Scott D. Grosse, Steven P. Cuffe.
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Prevalence of Parent-Reported ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment Among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2016.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2018; 47(2), 199-212.
Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Reem M. Ghandour, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan, Stephen J. Blumberg
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Prescription Claims Among Privately Insured Women Aged 15–44 Years — United States, 2003–2015
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); January 19, 2018; 67(2); 66–70.
Kayla N. Anderson, Elizabeth C. Ailes, Melissa Danielson, Jennifer N. Lind, Sherry L. Farr, Cheryl S. Broussard, Sarah C. Tinker.
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A National Description of Treatment among U.S. Children and Adolescents with ADHD. 
Journal of Pediatrics, 2018; 192, 240–246.e1.
Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna S. Visser, A Chronis-Tuscano, George J. DuPaul.
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Latent Class Analysis of ADHD Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Comorbidities
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2018; 39(1),10–19.
Benjamin Zablotsky, Matthew D. Bramlett, Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Stephen J. Blumberg
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A National Profile of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment Among US Children Aged 2 to 5 Years
Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2017, 38(7), 455–464.
Melissa L. Danielson, Susanna S. Visser, Mary Margaret M. Gleason, Georgina Peacock, Angelika H. Claussen, Stephen Blumberg.
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Treated Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Increased from 2009 to 2015 Among School-Aged Children and Adolescents in the United States
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2017; 27(8):731-734.
Kwame A. Nyarko, Scott D. Grosse, Melissa L. Danielson, Joseph R. Holbrook, Susanna N. Visser, Stuart K. Shapira
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Vital Signs: National and State-Specific Patterns of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Among Insured Children Aged 2–5 Years — United States, 2008–2014
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); May 3, 2016; 56(16)
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Mark L. Wolraich, Michael Fox, Scott D. Grosse, Linda A. Valle, Joseph R. Holbrook, Angelika H. Claussen, Georgina Peacock
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Demographic Differences Among a National Sample of US Youth With Behavioral Disorders
Clinical Pediatrics, 2016; 55(14), 1358-1362.
Susanna N. Visser, Emily L. Deubler, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, and Melissa L. Danielson,
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ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity: Functional outcomes in a school-based sample of children.
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online November 25, 2015.
Stephen P. Cuffe, Susanna N. Visser, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Lorie L. Geryk, Mark L. Wolraich, Robert E. McKeown
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The association between youth violence exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a sample of fifth-graders.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2015; 85(5), 504-513.
Terri Lewis, David C. Schwebel, Marc N. Elliott, Susanna N. Visser, Sara L. Toomey, Katie A. McLaughlin, Paula Cuccaro, Susan Tortolero Emery, Stephen W. Banspach, Mark A. Schuster.
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Diagnostic experiences of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
National Health Statistics Report, 81, 1-7, published online September 3, 2015.
Susanna N. Visser, Benjaming Zablotsky, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, & Rebecca H. Bitsko
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Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Children with Special Health Care Needs
Journal of Pediatrics, 2015; 166:1423-30.
Susanna N. Visser, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Melissa L. Danielson, Reem M. Gandhour, Stephen J. Blumberg, Laura Schieve, Joseph R. Holbrook, Mark L. Wolraich,  Stephen P. Cuffe.
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Student-Perceived School Climate Is Associated With ADHD Medication Treatment Among Adolescents in Medicaid
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online February 20, 2015 DOI: 10.1177/1087054715569601
Susanna N. Visser, Dennis Kramer, Angela B. Snyder, Joyce Sebian, Garry McGiboney, Arden Handler
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The impact of case definition on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder prevalence estimates.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 2015, 54(1): 53–61.
Robert E. McKeown, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa L. Danielson, Stephen P. Cuffe, Mark L. Wolraich, Susanna N. Visser
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Persistence of Parent-Reported ADHD Symptoms From Childhood Through Adolescence in a Community Sample.
Journal of Attention Disorders. Published online 3 July 2014 DOI: 10.1177/1087054714539997
Joseph R. Holbrook, Steven P. Cuffe , Bo Cai, Susanna N. Visser, Melinda S. Forthofer, Matteo Bottai, Andrew Ortaglia, Robert E. McKeown
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Trends in the Parent-Report of Health Care Provider-Diagnosed and Medicated ADHD Disorder: United States, 2003—2011.
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry;  2014,53(1):34–46.e2.
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Joseph R. Holbrook, Michael D. Kogan, Reem M. Ghandour, Ruth Perou, Stephen J. Blumberg
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Convergent validity of parent-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis: A cross-study comparison.
JAMA Pediatrics 2013; 167(7):674-675.
Susanna N. Visser, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Ruth Perou, Stephen J. Blumberg
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State-Based and Demographic Variation in Parent-Reported Medication Rates for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2007–2008
Preventing Chronic Disease, 2013;10:20073
Susanna N. Visser, Stephen J. Blumberg, Melissa L. Danielson, Rebecca H. Bitsko, Michael D. Kogan
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The prevalence of ADHD: Its diagnosis and treatment in four school districts across two states
Journal of Attention Disorders. October 2014; 18 (7), 563-575.
Mark L. Wolraich, Robert E. McKeown, Susanna N. Visser, David Bard, Steven Cuffe, Barbara Neas Lorie L. Geryk, Melissa Doffing, Matteo Bottai, Ann J. Abramowitz, Laoma Beck, Joseph R. Holbrook, Melissa Danielson
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Increasing Prevalence of Parent-Reported Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children – United States, 2003 and 2007
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR); November 12, 2010 / 59(44);1439-1443
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Unmet Health Care Needs Among CSHCN With Neurologic Conditions
Pediatrics, 2009; 124 Suppl. 4; pp. S343 -S351.
Rebecca H. Bitsko, Susanna N. Visser, Laura A. Schieve, Danielle S. Ross, David J. Thurman, Ruth Perou
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Diagnosed Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability: United States, 2004-2006
Vital and Health Statistics; July 2008; Series 10, Number 237
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Summary Health Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2006
Vital and Health Statistics; September 2007; Series 10 Number 234, Appendix III, Table VI
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National Estimates and Factors Associated With Medication Treatment for Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Pediatrics; Vol. 119 Supplement February 2007, pp. S99-S106
Susanna N. Visser, MS, Catherine A. Lesesne, PhD, MPH and Ruth Perou, PhD
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Mental Health in the United States: Prevalence of Diagnosis and Medication Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder — United States, 2003
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; September 2, 2005; 54(34); 842-847
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All Articles

Search a database of articles that have been published by CDC authors within the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities from 1990 to present.

Page last reviewed: June 12, 2020