Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes public health information and recommendations on a variety of diseases and topics. Read the most recent MMWRs on HIV.

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Recent HIV-Related Reports

  • Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among HIV-Positive Hispanic and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men — United States, 2015–2019
    What is already known about this topic?
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, a critical outcome for maintaining health in persons with HIV infection. Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high HIV infection rates; their barriers to ART adherence have not been extensively explored.
    What is added by this report?
    ART adherence was lower among younger Hispanic/Latino MSM and those who experienced poverty or reported drug use, depression, or unmet ancillary service needs. The most common reason for missing ART doses was forgetting (63.1%); 63.9% who missed doses reported multiple reasons.
  • Trends in Diagnosis of HIV Infection, Linkage to Medical Care, and Viral Suppression Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, by Race/Ethnicity and Age — 33 Jurisdictions, United States, 2014–2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for two thirds of annual diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Increased linkage to care and viral suppression among MSM with HIV infection can prevent transmission.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2014–2018, diagnoses of HIV infection among MSM in 33 jurisdictions decreased 2.3% per year overall, but Black, Hispanic/Latino, and younger (aged 13–19 years) MSM experienced a small or no decrease. Linkage to care within 1 month and viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis increased overall (2.9% and 6.8% per year, respectively) and among all racial/ethnic groups.
  • HIV Testing Trends at Visits to Physician Offices, Community Health Centers, and Emergency Departments — United States, 2009–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    CDC has recommended routine opt-out human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing since 2006, but the percentage of ambulatory care visits at which an HIV test is performed has remained low.
    What is added by this report?
    The percentage of visits with HIV testing increased in community health centers from 0.76% in 2009 to 2.41% in 2014 and in emergency departments from 0.22% in 2009 to 0.72% in 2017 but did not increase in physician offices during 2009–2016. HIV testing was performed at a higher percentage of visits for preventive care and visits with venipuncture.
  • Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression Among Active Duty Service Members with Incident HIV Infection — United States, January 2012–June 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) service members with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can remain in military service; however, treatment outcomes have not been fully described.
    During October 2016–September 2018, in 15 of 35 country or regional programs supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the increase in PrEP coverage among the general population was approximately triple that among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women. Critical factors associated with successful PrEP implementation in these populations include stakeholder engagement, existing PrEP delivery guidelines, HIV service provider training, and a drug procurement system.
    What is added by this report?
    During January 2012–June 2018, 93.8% of service members with HIV infection who remained in care received continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Viral suppression was achieved in 99.0% within 1 year of ART initiation and in 96.8% at the last test during the surveillance period.
  • Expansion of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis to 35 PEPFAR-Supported Early Program Adopters, October 2016–September 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection incidence.
    What is added by this report?
    During October 2016–September 2018, in 15 of 35 country or regional programs supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the increase in PrEP coverage among the general population was approximately triple that among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women. Critical factors associated with successful PrEP implementation in these populations include stakeholder engagement, existing PrEP delivery guidelines, HIV service provider training, and a drug procurement system.
  • HIV Testing Outcomes Among Blacks or African Americans — 50 Local U.S. Jurisdictions Accounting for the Majority of New HIV Diagnoses and Seven States with Disproportionate Occurrences of HIV in Rural Areas, 2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE) jurisdictions are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    What is added by this report?
    In 2017, blacks accounted for >40% of those tested and new diagnoses in EHE jurisdictions. Compared with whites, more blacks in EHE jurisdictions received a new diagnosis or were identified as a person with previously diagnosed HIV infection.
  • HIV Partner Service Delivery Among Transgender Women — United States, 2013–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    An overall estimate of prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was 18.8% among transgender women based on a meta-analysis of studies in the United States conducted during 2006–2017.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2013–2017, 71.5% of index transgender women were interviewed for partner services, 71.2% of transgender women partners were notified of their potential HIV exposure, 46.5% were tested for HIV, and 18.6% received a new diagnosis of HIV-positivity.
  • Neural Tube Defects in Pregnancies Among Women With Diagnosed HIV Infection — 15 Jurisdictions, 2013–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    In 2018, an association between periconceptional dolutegravir exposure and neural tube defects (NTD) was reported in Botswana. Data from U.S. birth defects and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) surveillance programs had not previously been linked to assess NTD prevalence in births to women with HIV.
    What is added by this report?
    Linking of data from birth defects and HIV/AIDS surveillance programs in 15 jurisdictions was done for the first time. The NTD prevalence in HIV-exposed pregnancies during 2013–2017 was estimated to be 7.0 per 10,000 live births, similar to the prevalence in the general population in the 15 jurisdictions and the U.S. estimate.
  • Vital Signs: Status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Viral Suppression, and HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis — United States, 2013–2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    The approximately 38,000 new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections that occur annually in the United States are preventable through testing, treatment, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A proposed initiative seeks to reduce new infections by at least 90% by 2030. The targets for the initiative are at least 95% for testing and treatment and 50% for PrEP.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2017, 85.8% of persons with HIV infection had received a diagnosis, and 62.7% of persons with diagnosed HIV infection had a suppressed viral load. In 2018, PrEP had been prescribed to 18.1% of persons with indications.
  • World AIDS Day — December 1, 2019
    World AIDS Day, observed annually on December 1, draws attention to the status of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Approximately 37.9 million persons worldwide are living with HIV infection, including 1.7 million persons newly infected in 2018.
  • Status of HIV Case-Based Surveillance Implementation — 39 U.S. PEPFAR-Supported Countries, May–July 2019
    What is already known on this topic?
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case-based surveillance continuously and systematically monitors HIV-positive patients throughout their clinical care and facilitates rapid public health action.
    What is added by this report?
    Among 39 surveyed countries supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 20 had implemented case-based surveillance, 15 were planning implementation, and four were not planning implementation. Challenges for most countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, include need for unique identifiers to link data across systems, supportive national policy environments, and data security standards.
  • Trends in Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic/Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men — 19 Urban Areas, 2011–2017
    What is already known about this topic?

    Among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with place of birth and length of U.S. residence. Unprotected anal sex (condomless anal sex and no HIV preexposure prophylaxis [PrEP] use) increases the risk for HIV acquisition.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2017, nearly 75% of Hispanic/Latino MSM reported condomless anal sex.
    However, because of PrEP use, <60% of non-U.S.–born Hispanic/Latino MSM and <50% of U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM reported unprotected anal sex.
  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men — 23 Urban Areas, 2017
    What is already known about this topic?

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus transmission by approximately 99%. In 2017, approximately one third of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) reported using PrEP.
    What is added by this report?
    Although PrEP awareness was high for all racial/ethnic groups, a lower percentage of black and Hispanic MSM than white MSM had discussed PrEP with a health care provider or had used PrEP within the past year.
  • Injection Practices and Sexual Behaviors Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Certain injection and sexual behaviors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive persons who inject drugs (PWID) can increase HIV transmission risk. Successful substance use treatment could lower risk of infection and overdose through reduced injection.
    What is added by this report?
    Approximately 10% of HIV-positive PWID engaged in distributive injection equipment sharing; nonsterile syringe acquisition and unsafe disposal methods were common. HIV-positive PWID were also more likely to have engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Eighty percent did not receive treatment for substance use.
  • Threefold Increases in Population HIV Viral Load Suppression Among Men and Young Adults — Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, 2014–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Achieving and sustaining viral load suppression (VLS) reduces illness and death associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and effectively prevents sexual transmission of HIV.
    What is added by this report?
    In Bukoba, Tanzania, scale-up of new testing, linkage to care, and retention on antiretroviral therapy interventions over 2.5 years helped increase VLS among HIV-positive persons approximately twofold overall (from 28.6% to 64.8%) and threefold among men (20.5% to 59.1%) and adults aged 18–29 years (15.6% to 56.7%).
  • Changes in HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Awareness and Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men — 20 Urban Areas, 2014 and 2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) can reduce their risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by using preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) consistently. Increasing PrEP use is a principal strategy of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative.
    What is added by this report?
    From 2014 to 2017, PrEP awareness among MSM in 20 urban areas increased from 60% to 90%, and PrEP use increased from 6% to 35%. PrEP use increased in almost all demographic subgroups but remains lower among black and Hispanic MSM.
  • HIV Testing in 50 Local Jurisdictions Accounting for the Majority of New HIV Diagnoses and Seven States with Disproportionate Occurrence of HIV in Rural Areas, 2016–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Rates of screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States are low.
    What is added by this report?
    This analysis of national survey data found that <40% of U.S. adults had ever been tested for HIV, and testing rates varied among jurisdictions comprising the initial focus of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative. Within these jurisdictions, rural areas had lower testing percentages and lower HIV diagnosis rates than did urban areas.
  • Disparities in Incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Black and White Women — United States, 2010–2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    Rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among all women have declined since 2010, but rates among black women remain higher than do those among white women.
    What is added by this report?
    A population attributable proportion analysis found that in 2016, an estimated 3,900 of 4,200 (93%) incident HIV infections among black women would not have occurred if the incidence for black women were the same as that for white women.
  • Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Heterosexual Persons Who Are Living Homeless and Inject Drugs — Seattle, Washington, 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Although diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons who inject drugs in the United States are declining, an HIV outbreak among such persons in rural Indiana demonstrated that population’s vulnerability to HIV infection.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2018, disease investigation and molecular HIV surveillance in Seattle, Washington, identified 14 related HIV diagnoses among heterosexuals who were living homeless, most of whom injected drugs. From 2017 to mid-November 2018, the number of HIV diagnoses among heterosexuals in King County, Washington, who inject drugs increased 286%.