Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes public health information and recommendations on a variety of diseases and topics. Read the most recent MMWRs on HIV.

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Recent HIV-Related Reports

  • HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Awareness and Referral to Providers Among Hispanic/Latino Persons — United States, 2019
    What is already known about this topic?
    Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons are disproportionately affected by HIV. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV infection.
    What is added by this report?
    Approximately one in four Hispanic persons tested for HIV at CDC-funded sites was aware of PrEP, and 22% of those eligible for referral were referred to PrEP providers. PrEP awareness and referrals among Hispanic persons were lower compared with those among non-Hispanic White persons.
  • Increasing Access to HIV Testing Through Direct-to-Consumer HIV Self-Test Distribution — United States, March 31, 2020–March 30, 2021
    What is already known about this topic?
    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) should be tested for HIV at least annually. Major disruptions to HIV testing services occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    What is added by this report?
    During March 2020–March 2021, a novel public-private partnership provided free HIV self-test kits directly to MSM. Most participants reported they had never tested (36%) or tested >1 year ago (56%); approximately 10% reported accessing services including sexually transmitted infection testing and preexposure prophylaxis after using the self-test.
  • Care Outcomes Among Black or African American Persons with Diagnosed HIV in Rural, Urban, and Metropolitan Statistical Areas — 42 U.S. Jurisdictions, 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Disparities in HIV care outcomes exist for Black persons with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and access to care and treatment services varies by residence area.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2018, rural Black persons received a higher percentage of late-stage HIV diagnosis (25.2%) than did those in urban (21.9%) and metropolitan areas (19.0%). Linkage to care within 1 month of diagnosis was similar across geographic areas; however, viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis was highest in metropolitan areas (63.8%).
  • Vital Signs: Deaths Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection, United States, 2010–2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    HIV remains among the 10 leading causes of death among certain populations, although deaths attributable to HIV infection are preventable.
    What is added by this report?
    Deaths among persons with diagnosed HIV (PWDH) decreased, primarily because of decreases in HIV-related deaths. The age-adjusted rate per 1,000 PWDH of HIV-related deaths decreased 48% and non–HIV-related deaths decreased 9% during 2010–2017. Differences in HIV-related deaths persist for certain populations.
  • Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among HIV-Positive Hispanic and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men — United States, 2015–2019
    What is already known about this topic?
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, a critical outcome for maintaining health in persons with HIV infection. Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high HIV infection rates; their barriers to ART adherence have not been extensively explored.
    What is added by this report?
    ART adherence was lower among younger Hispanic/Latino MSM and those who experienced poverty or reported drug use, depression, or unmet ancillary service needs. The most common reason for missing ART doses was forgetting (63.1%); 63.9% who missed doses reported multiple reasons.
  • Trends in Diagnosis of HIV Infection, Linkage to Medical Care, and Viral Suppression Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, by Race/Ethnicity and Age — 33 Jurisdictions, United States, 2014–2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for two thirds of annual diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Increased linkage to care and viral suppression among MSM with HIV infection can prevent transmission.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2014–2018, diagnoses of HIV infection among MSM in 33 jurisdictions decreased 2.3% per year overall, but Black, Hispanic/Latino, and younger (aged 13–19 years) MSM experienced a small or no decrease. Linkage to care within 1 month and viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis increased overall (2.9% and 6.8% per year, respectively) and among all racial/ethnic groups.
  • HIV Testing Trends at Visits to Physician Offices, Community Health Centers, and Emergency Departments — United States, 2009–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    CDC has recommended routine opt-out human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing since 2006, but the percentage of ambulatory care visits at which an HIV test is performed has remained low.
    What is added by this report?
    The percentage of visits with HIV testing increased in community health centers from 0.76% in 2009 to 2.41% in 2014 and in emergency departments from 0.22% in 2009 to 0.72% in 2017 but did not increase in physician offices during 2009–2016. HIV testing was performed at a higher percentage of visits for preventive care and visits with venipuncture.
  • Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression Among Active Duty Service Members with Incident HIV Infection — United States, January 2012–June 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) service members with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can remain in military service; however, treatment outcomes have not been fully described.
    During October 2016–September 2018, in 15 of 35 country or regional programs supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the increase in PrEP coverage among the general population was approximately triple that among female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and transgender women. Critical factors associated with successful PrEP implementation in these populations include stakeholder engagement, existing PrEP delivery guidelines, HIV service provider training, and a drug procurement system.
    What is added by this report?
    During January 2012–June 2018, 93.8% of service members with HIV infection who remained in care received continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Viral suppression was achieved in 99.0% within 1 year of ART initiation and in 96.8% at the last test during the surveillance period.