Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes public health information and recommendations on a variety of diseases and topics. Read the most recent MMWRs on HIV.

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Recent HIV-Related Reports

  • HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Persons with Monkeypox — Eight U.S. Jurisdictions, May 17–July 22, 2022
    What is already known about this topic?
    In the current global monkeypox outbreak, HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent among persons with monkeypox.
    What is added by this report?
    Among 1,969 persons with monkeypox in eight U.S. jurisdictions, 38% had HIV infection, and 41% had an STI in the preceding year. Among persons with monkeypox, hospitalization was more common among persons with HIV infection than persons without HIV infection.
  • Modeling the Impact of Sexual Networks in the Transmission of Monkeypox virus Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men — United States, 2022
    What is already known about this topic?
    The 2022 monkeypox outbreak is associated with sexual and intimate contact. Survey data suggest that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM), who have been disproportionately affected, are reducing one-time partnerships.
    What is added by this report?
    Modeling of sexual infection transmission between men indicates that one-time partnerships, which account for 3% of daily sexual partnerships and 16% of daily sex acts, account for approximately 50% of daily Monkeypox virus (MPXV) transmission. A 40% reduction in one-time partnerships might delay the spread of monkeypox and reduce the percentage of persons infected by 20% to 31%.
  • Strategies Adopted by Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men to Prevent Monkeypox virus Transmission — United States, August 2022
    What is already known about this topic?
    A global monkeypox outbreak is currently primarily affecting gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.
    What is added by this report?
    In a recent survey of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, approximately one half reported reducing their number of sex partners, one-time sexual encounters, and use of dating apps because of the monkeypox outbreak. Receipt of vaccine to protect against monkeypox varied by race, ethnicity, and geography.
  • Interim Guidance for Prevention and Treatment of Monkeypox in Persons with HIV Infection — United States, August 2022
    What is already known about this topic?
    A multinational monkeypox outbreak disproportionately affecting men who have sex with men, including persons with HIV infection, is ongoing worldwide.
    What is added by this report?
    CDC has developed clinical considerations for prevention and treatment of monkeypox in persons with HIV infection, including pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxis with JYNNEOS vaccine, treatment with tecovirimat, and infection control.
  • HIV Testing Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, 2019–2020
    What is already known about this topic?
    HIV testing is the first step in accessing HIV prevention and care services. The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted health care delivery and might have affected HIV testing, which is critical to ending the HIV epidemic in the United States.
    What is added by this report?
    From 2019 to 2020, new HIV diagnoses reported to CDC decreased by 17% accompanied by a substantial decline in HIV testing during the same period, including among priority populations in CDC-funded jurisdictions.
  • Factors Associated with Use of HIV Prevention and Health Care Among Transgender Women — Seven Urban Areas, 2019–2020
    What is already known about this topic?
    Transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2019–2020, 38% of transgender women surveyed in seven major U.S. cities reported receiving a previous positive HIV test result. Low income (44%), experiencing homelessness (39%), and severe food insecurity (40%) were common and associated with lower likelihood of receipt of HIV prevention and health care; having a health care provider with whom the participant is comfortable was positively associated with receiving those services.
  • Vital Signs: HIV Infection, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men — United States, 2010–2019
    What is already known about this topic?Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV.
    What is added by this report?
    This analysis of national surveillance data found that the estimated number of new HIV infections among MSM did not change overall during 2010–2019; infections decreased among White MSM but not among Black MSM or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Most measures of use of HIV prevention and treatment services were lower among Black MSM and Hispanic/Latino MSM than White MSM and younger MSM compared with other age groups.
  • Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Awareness of Preexposure Prophylaxis Among HIV-Negative Heterosexually Active Adults at Increased Risk for HIV Infection — 23 Urban Areas, United States, 2019
    What is already known about this topic?
    Heterosexual sex accounts for 23% of new HIV diagnoses annually. Heterosexual adults are underrepresented in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) research and campaigns. Increasing PrEP awareness and use in this population is needed to prevent HIV transmission and end the HIV epidemic in the United States.
    What is added by this report?
    PrEP awareness (32.3%) and use (<1%) among heterosexually active adults in high-prevalence cities is low, especially among Hispanic or Latino men and women (19.5% and 17.6%, respectively) and persons residing in Puerto Rico (5.8%).
  • HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Awareness and Referral to Providers Among Hispanic/Latino Persons — United States, 2019
    What is already known about this topic?
    Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons are disproportionately affected by HIV. Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective strategy to prevent HIV infection.
    What is added by this report?
    Approximately one in four Hispanic persons tested for HIV at CDC-funded sites was aware of PrEP, and 22% of those eligible for referral were referred to PrEP providers. PrEP awareness and referrals among Hispanic persons were lower compared with those among non-Hispanic White persons.
  • Increasing Access to HIV Testing Through Direct-to-Consumer HIV Self-Test Distribution — United States, March 31, 2020–March 30, 2021
    What is already known about this topic?
    Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) should be tested for HIV at least annually. Major disruptions to HIV testing services occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    What is added by this report?
    During March 2020–March 2021, a novel public-private partnership provided free HIV self-test kits directly to MSM. Most participants reported they had never tested (36%) or tested >1 year ago (56%); approximately 10% reported accessing services including sexually transmitted infection testing and preexposure prophylaxis after using the self-test.
  • Care Outcomes Among Black or African American Persons with Diagnosed HIV in Rural, Urban, and Metropolitan Statistical Areas — 42 U.S. Jurisdictions, 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Disparities in HIV care outcomes exist for Black persons with diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and access to care and treatment services varies by residence area.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2018, rural Black persons received a higher percentage of late-stage HIV diagnosis (25.2%) than did those in urban (21.9%) and metropolitan areas (19.0%). Linkage to care within 1 month of diagnosis was similar across geographic areas; however, viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis was highest in metropolitan areas (63.8%).
  • Vital Signs: Deaths Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection, United States, 2010–2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    HIV remains among the 10 leading causes of death among certain populations, although deaths attributable to HIV infection are preventable.
    What is added by this report?
    Deaths among persons with diagnosed HIV (PWDH) decreased, primarily because of decreases in HIV-related deaths. The age-adjusted rate per 1,000 PWDH of HIV-related deaths decreased 48% and non–HIV-related deaths decreased 9% during 2010–2017. Differences in HIV-related deaths persist for certain populations.
  • Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Among HIV-Positive Hispanic and Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men — United States, 2015–2019
    What is already known about this topic?
    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, a critical outcome for maintaining health in persons with HIV infection. Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) have disproportionately high HIV infection rates; their barriers to ART adherence have not been extensively explored.
    What is added by this report?
    ART adherence was lower among younger Hispanic/Latino MSM and those who experienced poverty or reported drug use, depression, or unmet ancillary service needs. The most common reason for missing ART doses was forgetting (63.1%); 63.9% who missed doses reported multiple reasons.