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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes public health information and recommendations on a variety of diseases and topics. Read the most recent MMWRs on HIV.

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With this form, you can search through all the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports:

Recent HIV-Related Reports

  • HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis, by Race and Ethnicity — United States, 2014–2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    In 2015, approximately 1.1 million adults were at risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus infection and had indications for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP); 26.3%, 43.7%, and 24.7% were white, black, and Hispanic, respectively.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2016, among 78,360 persons who filled prescriptions for PrEP in the United States, women accounted for only 4.7%. Among PrEP users with available race/ethnicity data, 68.7%, 11.2%, 13.1%, and 4.5% were white, black, Hispanic, and Asian, respectively.
  • Differences in Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes Among Hispanic/Latino Men and Women Receiving HIV Medical Care — United States, 2013–2014
    What is already known about this topic?
    The prevalence of diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States is approximately twice that of non-Hispanic whites. Describing Hispanics/Latinos with HIV-infection in medical care by sex could inform service delivery.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2013–2014, among Hispanics/Latinos with HIV infection in care, women were significantly more likely than were men to live in poverty, have English language difficulties, and receive ancillary services. Prescription of antiretroviral therapy and sustained viral suppression did not significantly differ by sex.
  • Age-Associated Trends in Diagnosis and Prevalence of Infection with HIV Among Men Who Have Sex with Men — United States, 2008–2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    In 2016, 67% of diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact.
    What is added by this report?
    During 2008–2016, the number of HIV diagnoses increased 3% annually among men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 13–29 years. The number of HIV diagnoses among MSM aged 13–29 years was four times that of MSM aged ≥50 years. Racial/ethnic inequities in HIV persisted, particularly among younger black/African American and Hispanic/Latino MSM.
  • Sexual Risk Behavior Differences Among Sexual Minority High School Students — United States, 2015 and 2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Sexual minority youths are at higher risk than are nonsexual minority youths for human immunodeficiency virus infection, sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, and related risk behaviors. Less is known about risk differences among sexual minority youth subgroups.
    What is added by this report?
    Among sexual minority youths, risk behaviors were more prevalent among bisexual females and males who were not sure than among their heterosexual peers as well as among students who had sexual contact with both sexes than among those with only same-sex sexual contact.
  • HIV Testing, Linkage to HIV Medical Care, and Interviews for Partner Services Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men — Non–Health Care Facilities, 20 Southern U.S. Jurisdictions, 2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, accounting for 38% of all new HIV diagnoses among MSM in the United States in 2016.
    What is added by this report?
    Analysis of CDC-funded HIV testing for black MSM in 20 southern U.S. jurisdictions in 2016 revealed that black MSM received 6% of the HIV tests provided and accounted for 36% of the new HIV diagnoses in non–health care facilities.
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Provider-Initiated HIV Test Offers Among Heterosexual Persons at Increased Risk for Acquiring HIV Infection — Virginia, 2016
    In a sample of 333 health care–seeking, heterosexual adults at increased risk for acquiring HIV infection, 194 (58%) reported not receiving an HIV test offer at a recent medical visit(s), and men (versus women) had a significantly lower prevalence of provider-initiated HIV test offers (32% versus 48%). Recent HIV testing was higher among recipients of provider-initiated offers compared with nonrecipients (71% versus 16%).
  • Interval Since Last HIV Test for Men and Women with Recent Risk for HIV Infection — United States, 2006–2016
    Analysis of 2006–2016 national population-based data found that the percentage of persons ever tested and median interval since last test remained unchanged. The median interval since last test among persons with recent HIV risk was shorter than that of other persons tested but exceeded 1 year.
  • Peer-Delivered Linkage Case Management and Same-Day ART Initiation for Men and Young Persons with HIV Infection — Eswatini, 2015–2017
    Among 651 persons diagnosed with HIV infection in community settings in Eswatini, 98% enrolled in care, and 83% initiated ART within a few days of receiving peer-delivered linkage case management services recommended by CDC and the World Health Organization. After expansion of ART eligibility for all persons with HIV infection, 96% initiated ART.
  • HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis in the U.S. Military Services — 2014–2016
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a substantial health concern for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and for service members stationed throughout the world. Each year, approximately 350 new HIV infections are diagnosed in members of the U.S. military services, with most infections acquired within the United States. Among 769 service members prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) during February 1, 2014–June 10, 2016, 87% were MSM. In a survey of health care providers, 49% rated their knowledge of PrEP as poor, and 29% reported ever having prescribed PrEP.
  • Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Eligibility and Coverage Among Children Aged <15 Years with HIV Infection — 20 PEPFAR-Supported Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2012–2016
    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines have expanded the recommended criteria for life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. All 20 sub-Saharan African countries included in this analysis adopted the 2013 WHO guidelines by 2015. In 2016, 13 of 20 countries adopted the 2016 guidelines to treat all children; however, approximately 56% of children aged <15 years with HIV infection in these countries were not receiving ART.
  • Access to Syringe Services Programs — Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia, 2013–2017
    The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74%. However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states.
  • HIV Diagnoses Among Persons Aged 13–29 Years — United States, 2010–2014
    HIV diagnoses analyzed by age groups revealed striking differences in rates of diagnosis of HIV infection between ages 13–21 years. During 2010–2014, HIV infection diagnosis rates per 100,000 population varied substantially with increasing age among persons aged 13–15 years (0.7), 16–17 years (4.5), 18–19 years (16.5), and 20–21 years (28.6). HIV diagnosis rates were higher, but less variable, among persons aged 22–23 years (34.0), 24–25 years (33.8), 26–27 years (31.3), and 28–29 years (28.7).
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Sustained Viral Suppression and Transmission Risk Potential Among Persons Receiving HIV Care — United States, 2014
    In 2014, fewer blacks living with diagnosed HIV infection had sustained viral suppression (all viral load test results in 2014 <200 HIV RNA copies/mL) compared with Hispanics and whites. Among those who were in care and did not achieve sustained viral suppression, blacks had viral loads >1,500 copies/mL for approximately half of the 12-month period in 2014; this circumstance can adversely affect their health outcomes and pose a risk for further transmission. Blacks aged 13–24 years had the lowest prevalence of sustained viral suppression.
  • Notes from the Field: Public Health Response to a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Outbreak Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices — Roka Commune, Cambodia, 2016
    Cambodians receive 0.8–5.9 therapeutic injections per person per year, one of the highest reported rates worldwide. Appropriate medical injections and infusions can be health sustaining or lifesaving; however, improper administration can have detrimental health consequences, including infectious disease transmission. In 2000, it was estimated that worldwide, unsafe injection and waste disposal practices account for 260,000 new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections annually.
  • HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs — 20 Cities, United States, 2015
    In 2015, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance found a 7% prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs which was lower than in 2012 (11%). Among HIV-negative respondents, 27% reported sharing syringes and 67% reported having vaginal sex without a condom in the previous 12 months; only 52% received syringes from a syringe services program and 34% received all syringes from sterile sources. HIV infection prevalence was higher among blacks (11%) than whites (6%) but more white persons who inject drugs shared syringes (white: 39%; black: 17%) and injection equipment (white: 61%; black: 41%) in the previous 12 months.
  • Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15–24 Years — Seven African Countries, 2015–2017
    Analysis of data from Population-based HIV Impact Assessment surveys conducted during 2015–2017 in seven countries in Eastern and Southern Africa found that the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%. Among those who were HIV-positive, 46.3% reported being aware of their status, and among those aware of their HIV-positive status, 85.5% reported current antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. Overall, viral load suppression among HIV-infected adolescent girls and young women, regardless of status awareness or current use of ART, was 45.0%, well below the UNAIDS target of 73%.
  • Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention — 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013–2016
    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recognized by the World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS as an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention intervention in settings with a generalized HIV epidemic and low male circumcision prevalence. During 2010–2012, CDC (through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) supported 1,020,424 VMMCs in nine countries in Southern and Eastern Africa.
  • Vital Signs: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Diagnosis Delays — United States
    Persons unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection account for approximately 40% of ongoing transmissions in the United States. Persons are unaware of their infection because of delayed HIV diagnoses that represent substantial missed opportunities to improve health outcomes and prevent HIV transmission.
  • HIV Testing, Linkage to HIV Medical Care, and Interviews for Partner Services Among Women — 61 Health Department Jurisdictions, United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2015
    Analysis of 2015 data on CDC-funded HIV tests and HIV prevention services from 61 health departments and 123 community-based organizations indicated that among women identified as having HIV infection, 62% had received a diagnosis of HIV infection before the current test, and 87% of those women were not in HIV medical care at the time of the test. Rates for linkage to medical care within 90 days of the current test date were 61% and 58% for women with newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed HIV infection, respectively. Among women with previously diagnosed HIV infection, 57% of black women and 65% of white women were linked to HIV medical care.