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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes public health information and recommendations on a variety of diseases and topics. Read the most recent MMWRs on HIV.

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Recent HIV-Related Reports

  • Peer-Delivered Linkage Case Management and Same-Day ART Initiation for Men and Young Persons with HIV Infection — Eswatini, 2015–2017
    Among 651 persons diagnosed with HIV infection in community settings in Eswatini, 98% enrolled in care, and 83% initiated ART within a few days of receiving peer-delivered linkage case management services recommended by CDC and the World Health Organization. After expansion of ART eligibility for all persons with HIV infection, 96% initiated ART.
  • HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis in the U.S. Military Services — 2014–2016
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a substantial health concern for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and for service members stationed throughout the world. Each year, approximately 350 new HIV infections are diagnosed in members of the U.S. military services, with most infections acquired within the United States. Among 769 service members prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) during February 1, 2014–June 10, 2016, 87% were MSM. In a survey of health care providers, 49% rated their knowledge of PrEP as poor, and 29% reported ever having prescribed PrEP.
  • Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Eligibility and Coverage Among Children Aged <15 Years with HIV Infection — 20 PEPFAR-Supported Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2012–2016
    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines have expanded the recommended criteria for life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. All 20 sub-Saharan African countries included in this analysis adopted the 2013 WHO guidelines by 2015. In 2016, 13 of 20 countries adopted the 2016 guidelines to treat all children; however, approximately 56% of children aged <15 years with HIV infection in these countries were not receiving ART.
  • Access to Syringe Services Programs — Kentucky, North Carolina, and West Virginia, 2013–2017
    The Appalachian region of the United States is experiencing a large increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections related to injection drug use (IDU). Syringe services programs (SSPs) providing sufficient access to safe injection equipment can reduce hepatitis C transmission by 56%; combined SSPs and medication-assisted treatment can reduce transmission by 74%. However, access to SSPs has been limited in the United States, especially in rural areas and southern and midwestern states.
  • HIV Diagnoses Among Persons Aged 13–29 Years — United States, 2010–2014
    HIV diagnoses analyzed by age groups revealed striking differences in rates of diagnosis of HIV infection between ages 13–21 years. During 2010–2014, HIV infection diagnosis rates per 100,000 population varied substantially with increasing age among persons aged 13–15 years (0.7), 16–17 years (4.5), 18–19 years (16.5), and 20–21 years (28.6). HIV diagnosis rates were higher, but less variable, among persons aged 22–23 years (34.0), 24–25 years (33.8), 26–27 years (31.3), and 28–29 years (28.7).
  • Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Sustained Viral Suppression and Transmission Risk Potential Among Persons Receiving HIV Care — United States, 2014
    In 2014, fewer blacks living with diagnosed HIV infection had sustained viral suppression (all viral load test results in 2014 <200 HIV RNA copies/mL) compared with Hispanics and whites. Among those who were in care and did not achieve sustained viral suppression, blacks had viral loads >1,500 copies/mL for approximately half of the 12-month period in 2014; this circumstance can adversely affect their health outcomes and pose a risk for further transmission. Blacks aged 13–24 years had the lowest prevalence of sustained viral suppression.
  • Notes from the Field: Public Health Response to a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Outbreak Associated with Unsafe Injection Practices — Roka Commune, Cambodia, 2016
    Cambodians receive 0.8–5.9 therapeutic injections per person per year, one of the highest reported rates worldwide. Appropriate medical injections and infusions can be health sustaining or lifesaving; however, improper administration can have detrimental health consequences, including infectious disease transmission. In 2000, it was estimated that worldwide, unsafe injection and waste disposal practices account for 260,000 new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections annually.
  • HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs — 20 Cities, United States, 2015
    In 2015, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance found a 7% prevalence of HIV infection among persons who inject drugs which was lower than in 2012 (11%). Among HIV-negative respondents, 27% reported sharing syringes and 67% reported having vaginal sex without a condom in the previous 12 months; only 52% received syringes from a syringe services program and 34% received all syringes from sterile sources. HIV infection prevalence was higher among blacks (11%) than whites (6%) but more white persons who inject drugs shared syringes (white: 39%; black: 17%) and injection equipment (white: 61%; black: 41%) in the previous 12 months.
  • Status of HIV Epidemic Control Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women Aged 15–24 Years — Seven African Countries, 2015–2017
    Analysis of data from Population-based HIV Impact Assessment surveys conducted during 2015–2017 in seven countries in Eastern and Southern Africa found that the prevalence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women was 3.6%. Among those who were HIV-positive, 46.3% reported being aware of their status, and among those aware of their HIV-positive status, 85.5% reported current antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. Overall, viral load suppression among HIV-infected adolescent girls and young women, regardless of status awareness or current use of ART, was 45.0%, well below the UNAIDS target of 73%.
  • Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention — 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013–2016
    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recognized by the World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS as an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention intervention in settings with a generalized HIV epidemic and low male circumcision prevalence. During 2010–2012, CDC (through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) supported 1,020,424 VMMCs in nine countries in Southern and Eastern Africa.
  • Vital Signs: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Diagnosis Delays — United States
    Persons unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection account for approximately 40% of ongoing transmissions in the United States. Persons are unaware of their infection because of delayed HIV diagnoses that represent substantial missed opportunities to improve health outcomes and prevent HIV transmission.
  • HIV Testing, Linkage to HIV Medical Care, and Interviews for Partner Services Among Women — 61 Health Department Jurisdictions, United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2015
    Analysis of 2015 data on CDC-funded HIV tests and HIV prevention services from 61 health departments and 123 community-based organizations indicated that among women identified as having HIV infection, 62% had received a diagnosis of HIV infection before the current test, and 87% of those women were not in HIV medical care at the time of the test. Rates for linkage to medical care within 90 days of the current test date were 61% and 58% for women with newly diagnosed and previously diagnosed HIV infection, respectively. Among women with previously diagnosed HIV infection, 57% of black women and 65% of white women were linked to HIV medical care.
  • HIV Care Outcomes Among Hispanics or Latinos with Diagnosed HIV Infection — United States, 2015
    In 2015, 58.1% of HIV infections among Hispanics or Latinos aged ≥13 years with diagnosed HIV infection in 38 jurisdictions with complete laboratory reporting were diagnosed at an earlier stage (stage 1 or 2) and another 18.8% at an unknown stage; 75.4% were linked to care within 1 month of diagnosis. Among Hispanics or Latinos living with diagnosed HIV infection at year-end 2014, 70.2% received care, 58.3% were retained in care, and 58.2% were virally suppressed. The lowest levels of care and viral suppression were among males with infection attributed to injection drug use, and the highest levels of care and viral suppression were among heterosexual females. Hispanics or Latinos in the four age groups ≥25 years had similar percentages of retention and viral suppression. Those aged 13–24 years had the highest retention in care among all age groups (60.5%), but had the lowest overall viral suppression (54.6%).
  • HIV Care Outcomes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men With Diagnosed HIV Infection — United States, 2015
    In 2015, 19% of HIV infections diagnosed among MSM were classified as stage 3 (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and 75% of MSM with diagnoses of HIV infection were linked to care within 1 month. MSM who were black or African American and MSM aged <25 years were less likely to be linked to care within 1 month of diagnosis of HIV infection compared with other racial/ethnic and age groups.
  • Update to CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2016: Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women at High Risk for HIV Infection
    CDC’s U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use (U.S. MEC) (first published in 2010 and updated in 2016) provides evidence-based guidance for the safe use of contraceptive methods among U.S. women with certain characteristics or medical conditions (1), and is adapted from global guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and kept up to date based on continual review of published literature (2). CDC recently evaluated the evidence and the updated WHO guidance on the risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition among women using hormonal contraception. After careful review, CDC adopted the updated WHO guidance for inclusion in the U.S. MEC guidance; this guidance states that the advantages of progestin-only injectable contraceptive use (including depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA]) by women at high risk for HIV infection outweigh the theoretical or proven risks (U.S. MEC category 2).
  • QuickStats: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Death Rates Among Women Aged 45–64 Years, by Race and Age Group — National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2000–2015
    Among black women aged 45–54 years, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease death rate decreased 60% from 28.4 per 100,000 in 2006 to 11.5 in 2015. Among black women aged 55–64 years, the rate increased 42% from 10.0 in 2000 to 14.2 in 2008, before declining to 10.3 in 2015. Among white women aged 45–54 years, the rate decreased 53% from 1.9 in 2005 to 0.9 in 2015. Among white women aged 55–64 years, the rate did not change, remaining at about 0.8. Throughout the period, HIV disease death rates among black women were higher compared with rates among white women for both age groups.
  • HIV Testing Among Transgender Women and Men — 27 States and Guam, 2014–2015
    This analysis of 2014 and 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data showed that transgender women and men self-reported a lower prevalence of HIV testing (both ever and in the past year) compared with gay and bisexual men whose gender identities match their sex assignments at birth (cisgender). Transgender women and men self-reported testing at levels similar to cisgender heterosexual men and women.
  • Recommendations for HIV Screening of Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men — United States, 2017
    CDC concludes that the evidence, programmatic experience, and expert opinions are insufficient to warrant changing the current recommendation (annual screening for MSM) to more frequent screening (every 3 or 6 months). Therefore, CDC’s 2006 recommendation for HIV screening of MSM is unchanged; providers in clinical settings should offer HIV screening at least annually to all sexually active MSM. Clinicians can also consider the potential benefits of more frequent HIV screening (e.g., every 3 or 6 months) for some asymptomatic sexually active MSM based on their individual risk factors, local HIV epidemiology, and local policies.
  • Changes in the disparity of HIV diagnosis rates among black women—United States, 2010–2014
    This study suggests that the disparity in HIV diagnosis rates for black women, compared to Hispanic/Latina and white women, may be decreasing, a good sign that targeted prevention efforts are working. However, disparities have not disappeared, and black women continue to have a much higher rate of HIV diagnoses than Hispanic/Latina or white women. CDC remains committed to implementing high-impact prevention approaches that can reduce HIV infections among all blacks.