Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports

CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes public health information and recommendations on a variety of diseases and topics. Read the most recent MMWRs on HIV.

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Recent HIV-Related Reports

  • Vital Signs: Status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Viral Suppression, and HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis — United States, 2013–2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    The approximately 38,000 new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections that occur annually in the United States are preventable through testing, treatment, and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). A proposed initiative seeks to reduce new infections by at least 90% by 2030. The targets for the initiative are at least 95% for testing and treatment and 50% for PrEP.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2017, 85.8% of persons with HIV infection had received a diagnosis, and 62.7% of persons with diagnosed HIV infection had a suppressed viral load. In 2018, PrEP had been prescribed to 18.1% of persons with indications.
  • World AIDS Day — December 1, 2019
    World AIDS Day, observed annually on December 1, draws attention to the status of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. Approximately 37.9 million persons worldwide are living with HIV infection, including 1.7 million persons newly infected in 2018.
  • Status of HIV Case-Based Surveillance Implementation — 39 U.S. PEPFAR-Supported Countries, May–July 2019
    What is already known on this topic?
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case-based surveillance continuously and systematically monitors HIV-positive patients throughout their clinical care and facilitates rapid public health action.
    What is added by this report?
    Among 39 surveyed countries supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, 20 had implemented case-based surveillance, 15 were planning implementation, and four were not planning implementation. Challenges for most countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, include need for unique identifiers to link data across systems, supportive national policy environments, and data security standards.
  • Trends in Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic/Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men — 19 Urban Areas, 2011–2017
    What is already known about this topic?

    Among Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with place of birth and length of U.S. residence. Unprotected anal sex (condomless anal sex and no HIV preexposure prophylaxis [PrEP] use) increases the risk for HIV acquisition.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2017, nearly 75% of Hispanic/Latino MSM reported condomless anal sex.
    However, because of PrEP use, <60% of non-U.S.–born Hispanic/Latino MSM and <50% of U.S.-born Hispanic/Latino MSM reported unprotected anal sex.
  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men — 23 Urban Areas, 2017
    What is already known about this topic?

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) reduces the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus transmission by approximately 99%. In 2017, approximately one third of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) reported using PrEP.
    What is added by this report?
    Although PrEP awareness was high for all racial/ethnic groups, a lower percentage of black and Hispanic MSM than white MSM had discussed PrEP with a health care provider or had used PrEP within the past year.
  • Injection Practices and Sexual Behaviors Among Persons with Diagnosed HIV Infection Who Inject Drugs — United States, 2015–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Certain injection and sexual behaviors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive persons who inject drugs (PWID) can increase HIV transmission risk. Successful substance use treatment could lower risk of infection and overdose through reduced injection.
    What is added by this report?
    Approximately 10% of HIV-positive PWID engaged in distributive injection equipment sharing; nonsterile syringe acquisition and unsafe disposal methods were common. HIV-positive PWID were also more likely to have engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Eighty percent did not receive treatment for substance use.
  • Threefold Increases in Population HIV Viral Load Suppression Among Men and Young Adults — Bukoba Municipal Council, Tanzania, 2014–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Achieving and sustaining viral load suppression (VLS) reduces illness and death associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and effectively prevents sexual transmission of HIV.
    What is added by this report?
    In Bukoba, Tanzania, scale-up of new testing, linkage to care, and retention on antiretroviral therapy interventions over 2.5 years helped increase VLS among HIV-positive persons approximately twofold overall (from 28.6% to 64.8%) and threefold among men (20.5% to 59.1%) and adults aged 18–29 years (15.6% to 56.7%).
  • Changes in HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Awareness and Use Among Men Who Have Sex with Men — 20 Urban Areas, 2014 and 2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Men who have sex with men (MSM) can reduce their risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by using preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) consistently. Increasing PrEP use is a principal strategy of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative.
    What is added by this report?
    From 2014 to 2017, PrEP awareness among MSM in 20 urban areas increased from 60% to 90%, and PrEP use increased from 6% to 35%. PrEP use increased in almost all demographic subgroups but remains lower among black and Hispanic MSM.
  • HIV Testing in 50 Local Jurisdictions Accounting for the Majority of New HIV Diagnoses and Seven States with Disproportionate Occurrence of HIV in Rural Areas, 2016–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Rates of screening for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States are low.
    What is added by this report?
    This analysis of national survey data found that <40% of U.S. adults had ever been tested for HIV, and testing rates varied among jurisdictions comprising the initial focus of the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative. Within these jurisdictions, rural areas had lower testing percentages and lower HIV diagnosis rates than did urban areas.
  • Disparities in Incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Black and White Women — United States, 2010–2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    Rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among all women have declined since 2010, but rates among black women remain higher than do those among white women.
    What is added by this report?
    A population attributable proportion analysis found that in 2016, an estimated 3,900 of 4,200 (93%) incident HIV infections among black women would not have occurred if the incidence for black women were the same as that for white women.
  • Outbreak of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Heterosexual Persons Who Are Living Homeless and Inject Drugs — Seattle, Washington, 2018
    What is already known about this topic?
    Although diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among persons who inject drugs in the United States are declining, an HIV outbreak among such persons in rural Indiana demonstrated that population’s vulnerability to HIV infection.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2018, disease investigation and molecular HIV surveillance in Seattle, Washington, identified 14 related HIV diagnoses among heterosexuals who were living homeless, most of whom injected drugs. From 2017 to mid-November 2018, the number of HIV diagnoses among heterosexuals in King County, Washington, who inject drugs increased 286%.
  • Vital Signs: HIV Transmission Along the Continuum of Care — United States, 2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    Recent studies have demonstrated no human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual transmission by persons whose infection is treated and who have achieved and sustain viral suppression. New estimates are needed to understand remaining sources of HIV transmissions.
    What is added by this report?
    An HIV transmission model indicated that, along the HIV care continuum, transmissions arise from persons with HIV infection who have not received a diagnosis or who have a diagnosed infection that is not controlled.
  • Transmission Patterns in a Low HIV-Morbidity State — Wisconsin, 2014–2017
    What is already known about this topic?
    Identifying named partners through public health interviews is an important strategy for interrupting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Analyzing HIV molecular sequence data also can identify networks of potential transmission partners.
    What is added by this report?
    Most molecular linkages in Wisconsin were among persons within the same racial/ethnic, risk, and age groups. Among named partner linkages where both persons had an HIV sequence available, 33.8% also had a molecular linkage and were deemed plausible transmission partners.
  • HIV Partner Service Delivery Among Blacks or African Americans — United States, 2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    In 2017, the rate of diagnosis of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among blacks/African Americans (blacks) was approximately eight times that of non-Hispanic whites.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2016, 78% of black index patients were interviewed for partner services. However, among black partners, fewer than half were tested for HIV infection, 17% received a new diagnosis of HIV infection, and 9% were previously infected. The prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infection was particularly high among black partners who were gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) (37%) and transgender persons (38%).
  • Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of American Indian/Alaska Native Adults in HIV Care — Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2011–2015
    What is already known about this topic?
    In 2016, American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) had the fourth highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection diagnosis rate among all racial/ethnic groups. During 2011–2016, diagnoses of HIV infection among AI/AN patients increased by 70%. Little has been published about characteristics of AI/AN patients with HIV infection.
    What is added by this report?
    Among adults receiving HIV care from 2011 to 2015, AI/AN patients had high poverty levels (51%), depression (27%), HIV stigma (78%), and suboptimal sustained HIV viral suppression (64%).
  • HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis, by Race and Ethnicity — United States, 2014–2016
    What is already known about this topic?
    In 2015, approximately 1.1 million adults were at risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus infection and had indications for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP); 26.3%, 43.7%, and 24.7% were white, black, and Hispanic, respectively.
    What is added by this report?
    In 2016, among 78,360 persons who filled prescriptions for PrEP in the United States, women accounted for only 4.7%. Among PrEP users with available race/ethnicity data, 68.7%, 11.2%, 13.1%, and 4.5% were white, black, Hispanic, and Asian, respectively.