Show Me the Science - How to Wash Your Hands
Keeping hands clean is one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. Many diseases and conditions are spread by not washing hands with soap and clean, running water. CDC recommends cleaning hands in a specific way to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others. The guidance for effective handwashing and use of hand sanitizer was developed based on data from a number of studies.
Microbes are all tiny living organisms that may or may not cause disease.
Germs, or pathogens, are types of microbes that can cause disease.
Why? Because hands could become recontaminated if placed in a basin of standing water that has been contaminated through previous use, clean running water should be used 1. However, washing with non-potable water when necessary may still improve health 3. The temperature of the water does not appear to affect microbe removal; however, warmer water may cause more skin irritation and is more environmentally costly 4-6.
Turning off the faucet after wetting hands saves water, and there are few data to prove whether significant numbers of germs are transferred between hands and the faucet.
Using soap to wash hands is more effective than using water alone because the surfactants in soap lift soil and microbes from skin, and people tend to scrub hands more thoroughly when using soap, which further removes germs 2,3,7,8.
To date, studies have shown that there is no added health benefit for consumers (this does not include professionals in the healthcare setting) using soaps containing antibacterial ingredients compared with using plain soap 9, 10. As a result, FDA issued a final rule in September 2016 that 19 ingredients in common “antibacterial” soaps, including triclosan, were no more effective than non-antibacterial soap and water and thus these products are no longer able to be marketed to the general public. This rule does not affect hand sanitizers, wipes, or antibacterial products used in healthcare settings.
Why? Lathering and scrubbing hands creates friction, which helps lift dirt, grease, and microbes from skin. Microbes are present on all surfaces of the hand, often in particularly high concentration under the nails, so the entire hand should be scrubbed 11-15.
Why? Determining the optimal length of time for handwashing is difficult because few studies about the health impacts of altering handwashing times have been done. Of those that exist, nearly all have measured reductions in overall numbers of microbes, only a small proportion of which can cause illness, and have not measured impacts on health. Solely reducing numbers of microbes on hands is not necessarily linked to better health 16. The optimal length of time for handwashing is also likely to depend on many factors, including the type and amount of soil on the hands and the setting of the person washing hands. For example, surgeons are likely to come into contact with disease-causing germs and risk spreading serious infections to vulnerable patients, so they may need to wash hands longer than someone preparing their own lunch at home. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that washing hands for about 15-30 seconds removes more germs from hands than washing for shorter periods 15, 17, 18.
Accordingly, many countries and global organizations have adopted recommendations to wash hands for about 20 seconds (some recommend an additional 20-30 seconds for drying):
- The Benefits of Hand Washingexternal icon
- New Zealand. Step-by-Step Guide to Hand Washingexternal icon
- The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing. Why Handwashing?external icon
- World Health Organization. Guidelines on Hygiene in Health Care: A Summary pdf icon[PDF – 64 pages]external icon
Why? Soap and friction help lift dirt, grease, and microbes—including disease-causing germs—from skin so they can then be rinsed off of hands. Rinsing the soap away also minimizes skin irritation 15. Because hands could become recontaminated if rinsed in a basin of standing water that has been contaminated through previous use, clean running water should be used 1, 12.While some recommendations include using a paper towel to turn off the faucet after hands have been rinsed, this practice leads to increased use of water and paper towels, and there are no studies to show that it improves health.
Why? Germs can be transferred more easily to and from wet hands; therefore, hands should be dried after washing 15, 19. However, the best way to dry hands remains unclear because few studies about hand drying exist, and the results of these studies conflict. Additionally, most of these studies compare overall concentrations of microbes, not just disease-causing germs, on hands following different hand-drying methods. It has not been shown that removing microbes from hands is linked to better health 16. Nonetheless, studies suggest that using a clean towel or air drying hands are best 18, 20, 21.
- Palit A, Batabyal P, Kanungo S, Sur D. In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea.external icon Water Sci Technol. 2012;66(2):299-303.
- Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Feikin DR, Painter J, Billhimer W, Altaf A, Hoekstra RM. Effect of handwashing on child health: a randomised controlled trial.external icon Lancet. 2005;366:225-33.
- Luby SP, Halder AK, Huda T, Unicomb L, Johnston RB. The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study.external icon PLoS Med. 2011;8(6):e1001052.
- Carrico AR, Spoden M, Wallston KA, Vandenbergh MP. The environmental cost of misinformation: why the recommendation to use elevated temperatures for handwashing is problematicexternal icon. Int J Consum Stud. 2013;37(4):433-41.
- Laestadius JG, Dimberg L. Hot water for handwashing–where is the proof?external icon J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(4):434-5.
- Michaels B, Gangar V, Schultz A, Arenas M, Curiale M, Ayers T, Paulson D. Water temperature as a factor in handwashing efficacy.external icon Food Service Technology. 2002;2:139-49.
- Burton M, Cobb E, Donachie P, Judah G, Curtis V, Schmidt WP. The effect of handwashing with water or soap on bacterial contamination of hands.external icon Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8(1):97-104.
- Todd ECD, Michaels BS, Holah J, Smith D, Grieg JD, Bartleson CA. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.external icon J Food Prot. 2010;73(11):2128-40.
- Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Painter J, Altaf A, Billhimer WL, Hoekstra RM. Effect of intensive handwashing promotion on childhood diarrhea in high-risk communities in Pakistan: a randomized controlled trial.external icon JAMA. 2004;291(21):2547-54.
- Larson EL, Lin SX, Gomez-Pichardo C, Della-Latta P. Effect of antibacterial home cleaning and handwashing products on infectious disease symptoms: a randomized, double-blind trial.external icon Ann Intern Med. 2004;140(5):321-9.
- Gordin FM, Schultz ME, Huber R, Zubairi S, Stock F, Kariyil J. A cluster of hemodialysis-related bacteremia linked to artificial fingernails.external icon Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28(6):743-4.
- Hoque BA. Handwashing practices and challenges in Bangladesh.external icon Int J Environ Health Res. 2003;13 Suppl 1:S81-7.
- Lin CM, Wu FM, Kim HK, Doyle MP, Michael BS, Williams LK. A comparison of hand washing techniques to remove Escherichia coli and caliciviruses under natural or artificial fingernails.external icon J Food Prot. 2003;66(12):2296-301.
- McGinley KJ, Larson EL, Leyden JJ. Composition and density of microflora in the subungual space of the hand.external icon J Clin Microbiol. 1988;26(5): 950–3.
- Todd EC, Michaels BS, Smith D, Greig JD, Bartleson CA. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination.external icon J Food Prot. 2010;73(10):1937-55.
- Luby SP, Agboatwalla M, Billhimer W, Hoekstra RM. Field trial of a low cost method to evaluate hand cleanliness.external icon Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12(6):765-71.
- Fuls JL, Rodgers ND, Fischler GE, Howard JM, Patel M, Weidner PL, Duran MH. Alternative hand contamination technique to compare the activities of antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial soaps under different test conditions.external icon Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(12):3739-44.
- Jensen D, Danyluk M, Harris L, Schaffner D. Quantifying the effect of hand wash duration, soap use, ground beef debris, and drying methods on the removal of Enterobacter aerogenes on handsexternal icon. J Food Prot. 2015 Apr;78(4):685-690.
- Patrick DR, Findon G, Miller TE. Residual moisture determines the level of touch-contact-associated bacterial transfer following hand washing.external icon Epidemiol Infect. 1997;119(3):319-25.
- Gustafson DR, Vetter EA, Larson DR, Ilstrup DM, Maker MD, Thompson RL, Cockerill FR 3rd. Effects of 4 hand-drying methods for removing bacteria from washed hands: a randomized trial.external icon Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75(7):705-8.
- Huang C, Ma W, Stack S. The hygienic efficacy of different hand-drying methods: a review of the evidence.external icon Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(8):791-8.