Publications, Data, & Statistics

What to know

These articles provide information related to handwashing and the use of hand sanitizer in a variety of settings around the world. They include key publications on related topics but are not intended to be a comprehensive list of references.

The data

Publication Highlight‎

Haston JC, Miller GF, Berendes D, et al. Characteristics Associated with Adults Remembering to Wash Hands in Multiple Situations Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic – United States, October 2019 and June 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).

Improved Health

Contamination & Microbe Removal

Antibacterial Soap

Handwashing has been clearly shown to prevent a variety of diseases and is one of the most important ways to protect oneself and others from infections. To date, studies have shown that there is no added health benefit for consumers (this does not include professionals in the healthcare setting) using soaps containing antibacterial ingredients compared with using plain soap. CDC looks forward to any future data about the safety and effectiveness of antibacterial consumer products and will continue to adjust recommendations based on the best available science.

Efficacy of Antibacterial Soaps

Environmental Fate & Potential Health Impact of Antibacterial Soap Additives

Drying Hands

Hand Sanitizer

Animal Settings