Muéstreme los fundamentos científicos: Cuándo usar desinfectante de manos

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 magnifying glass¿Por qué? Si bien los desinfectantes de manos a base de alcohol pueden inactivar muchos tipos de microbios de manera muy eficaz cuando se usan correctamente 1-10, es posible que las personas no usen la cantidad suficiente de desinfectante o que se quiten el producto antes de que haya terminado de secar 10. Además, el agua y el jabón son más eficaces que los desinfectantes de manos en la eliminación o inactivación de determinados tipos de microbios, como Cryptosporidium, norovirus y Clostridium difficile 11-15.

References
  1. CDC. Antimicrobial spectrum and characteristics of hand-hygiene antiseptic agents. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002;51(RR16):45.
  2. Edmonds SL, Mann J, McCormack RR, Macinga DR, Fricker CM, Arbogast JW, Dolan MJ. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.External J Food Prot. 2010 Dec;73(12):2296-300.
  3. Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J, Barr IG, Ballard SA, Johnson PD, Mastorakos T, Birch C. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.External Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;48(3):285-91.
  4. Hammond B, Ali Y, Fendler E, Dolan M, Donovan S. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism.External Am J Infect Control. 2000 Oct;28(5):340-6.
  5. Hübner NO, Hübner C, Wodny M, Kampf G, Kramer A. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea.External BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:250.
  6. Kramer A, Galabov AS, Sattar SA, Döhner L, Pivert A, Payan C, Wolff MH, Yilmaz A, Steinmann J. Virucidal activity of a new hand disinfectant with reduced ethanol content: comparison with other alcohol-based formulations.External J Hosp Infect. 2006 Jan;62(1):98-106.
  7. Lee GM, Salomon JA, Friedman JF, Hibberd PL, Ross-Degnan D, Zasloff E, Bediako S, Goldmann DA. Illness transmission in the home: a possible role for alcohol-based hand gels.External Pediatrics. 2005 Apr;115(4):852-60.
  8. Sandora TJ, Taveras EM, Shih MC, Resnick EA, Lee GM, Ross-Degnan D, Goldmann DA. A randomized, controlled trial of a multifaceted intervention including alcohol-based hand sanitizer and hand-hygiene education to reduce illness transmission in the home.External Pediatrics. 2005 Sep;116(3):587-94.
  9. Stebbins S, Cummings DA, Stark JH, Vukotich C, Mitruka K, Thompson W, Rinaldo C, Roth L, Wagner M, Wisniewski SR, Dato V, Eng H, Burke DS. Reduction in the incidence of influenza A but not influenza B associated with use of hand sanitizer and cough hygiene in schools: a randomized controlled trial.External Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Nov;30(11):921-6.
  10. Kampf G, Marschall S, Eggerstedt S, Ostermeyer C. Efficacy of ethanol-based hand foams using clinically relevant amounts: a cross-over controlled study among healthy volunteers.External BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 26;10:78.
  11. Barbee SL, Weber DJ, Sobsey MD, Rutala WA. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst infectivity by disinfection and sterilization processes.External Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 May;49(5):605-11.
  12. Blaney DD, Daly ER, Kirkland KB, Tongren JE, Kelso PT, Talbot EA. Use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers as a risk factor for norovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities in northern New England: December 2006 to March 2007.External Am J Infect Control. 2011 May;39(4):296-301.
  13. Charbonneau DL, Ponte JM, Kochanowski BA. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.External J Food Prot. 2000 Apr;63(4):495-501.
  14. Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J, Barr IG, Ballard SA, Johnson PD, Mastorakos T, Birch C. Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1 influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.External Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;48(3):285-91.
  15. Oughton MT, Loo VG, Dendukuri N, Fenn S, Libman MD. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile.External Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;30(10):939-44.

 magnifying glass¿Por qué? Muchos estudios muestran que los desinfectantes de manos funcionan bien en entornos clínicos, como hospitales, donde las manos entran en contacto con microbios, pero que en general no están muy sucias ni grasosas 1. Algunos datos también muestran que los desinfectantes de manos pueden funcionar bien contra determinados tipos de microbios cuando las manos están ligeramente sucias 2,3. Sin embargo, las manos pueden engrasarse o ensuciarse mucho en entornos comunitarios, como después de que las personas manipulan alimentos, hacen deporte, trabajan en el jardín o van de campamento o de pesca. Cuando las manos están muy sucias o grasosas, es posible que los desinfectantes de manos no funcionen bien 1,4,5. En tales circunstancias, se recomienda lavarse las manos con agua y jabón.

References
  1. Todd ECD, Michaels BS, Holah J, Smith D, Grieg JD, Bartleson CA. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 10. Alcohol-based antiseptics for hand disinfection and a comparison of their effectiveness with soaps.External J Food Prot. 2010 Nov;73(11):2128-40.
  2. Pickering AJ, Davis J, Boehm AB. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.External J Water Health. 2011 Sep;9(3):429-33.
  3. Pickering AJ, Boehm AB, Mwanjali M, Davis J. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.External Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Feb;82(2):270-8.
  4. Charbonneau DL, Ponte JM, Kochanowski BA. A method of assessing the efficacy of hand sanitizers: use of real soil encountered in the food service industry.External J Food Prot. 2000 Apr;63(4):495-501.
  5. Edmonds SL, Mann J, McCormack RR, Macinga DR, Fricker CM, Arbogast JW, Dolan MJ. SaniTwice: a novel approach to hand hygiene for reducing bacterial contamination on hands when soap and water are unavailable.External J Food Prot. 2010 Dec;73(12):2296-300.
Esta página fue revisada el: 22 de julio de 2015