Science Brief: Evidence used to update the list of underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19

Science Brief: Evidence used to update the list of underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19
Updated Mar. 29, 2021

Summary of Recent Changes

Updates to the list of underlying medical conditions that put adults of any age at high risk for severe illness from the virus that causes COVID-19 were based on evidence from published reports, scientific articles in press, unreviewed pre-prints, and internal data. Updates to the following conditions were completed based on evidence from the date range below:

  • Substance use disorders were based on evidence published between December 1, 2019, and January 2021.
  • Asthma, blood disorders, cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), cystic fibrosis, diabetes, Down syndrome, heart disease, hypertension, immunosuppressant medications, use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications, solid organ or blood stem cell transplantation, neurological conditions, and obesity were based on evidence published between December 1, 2019, and December 2020.
  • Smoking was based on evidence published between December 1, 2019, and July 20, 2020.
  • All other conditions were based on evidence published between December 1, 2019, and October 16, 2020.

In keeping with an ever-growing volume of literature, references are now categorized by study type. With these categories, we can be more specific about the type of study used as supporting evidence. By presenting the references in these categories, clinicians can better evaluate the quality of the data to determine risk.

No conditions were removed from the previous underlying medical conditions list.

Context

There is much to learn about the newly emerged COVID-19. Based on available literature and data from CDC-led investigations, we continue to learn more about COVID-19 and associated underlying medical conditions that put adults at increased risk of severe illness. Severe illness from COVID-19 is defined here as hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), intubation or mechanical ventilation, or death. Evidence used to inform this list was determined by CDC reviewers based on available evidence about COVID-19 at time of review.

Overview

Conditions on this list have been shown to be associated with severe illness from COVID-19. Updates to the conditions below were based on published reports, scientific articles in press, unreviewed pre-prints, and data from CDC-led investigations. Conditions were categorized by the type of study design:

  • Supported by meta-analysis/systematic review: Defined as having a significant association in at least one meta-analysis or systematic review.
  • Supported by mostly cohort, case-control, or cross sectional studies: Defined as having an association in cohort, case-control or cross sectional studies; may include systematic review or meta-analysis that represents one condition in a larger group of conditions (for example, kidney transplant under the category of solid organ or blood stem cell transplantation).
  • Supported by mostly case series, case reports or, if other study design, the sample size is small (and no systematic review or meta-analysis were available to review): Defined as having an association in one or more case series studies. If there are cohort or case-control studies, sample sizes were small. Conditions included may be rare.
  • Supported by mixed evidence: Defined as having an association in at least one meta-analysis or systematic review and additional studies or reviews that reached different conclusions about risk associated with a condition.

In keeping with an ever-growing volume of literature, references are now categorized by study type. With these categories, we can be more specific about the type of study used as supporting evidence. By presenting the references in these categories, clinicians can better evaluate the quality of the data to determine risk.

 To learn more about the study designs used to determine the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes in these research studies, providers can review the following:

Principles of Epidemiology | Lesson 1 – Overview (cdc.gov)

Principles of Epidemiology | Lesson 1 – Section 7 (cdc.gov)

Rating Evidence in Medical Literature | Journal of Ethics | American Medical Association (ama-assn.org)external icon

This list might change and, upon review as the science evolves, CDC might update it.

Based on available evidence, conditions could move between evidence categories. Aside from substance use disorders and Down syndrome, last reviewed in January 2021 and December 2020, respectively, no additional condition has been added to this list. If strong and consistent evidence demonstrated no association with severe outcomes, it may be removed from the list. No conditions were removed from the previous underlying medical conditions list.

Table of Evidence

Evidence used to inform the list of underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19. In alphabetic order by section.

Evidence used to update the list of underlying medical conditions that increase a person’s risk of severe illness from COVID-19
Tier Condition Evidence of Impact on COVID-19 Severity [Reference number]
Supported by meta-analysis/systematic review Cancer Systematic Review [1, 2]
Cohort Study [3-5]
Case Series [6-8]
Case Control Study [9]
Cerebrovascular disease Meta-Analysis [10-13]
Synthesis of Evidence [14]
Cohort Study [15-17]
Chronic kidney disease Meta-Analysis [13, 18]
Cohort Studies [16, 19-40]
Case Series [41-43]
COPD Meta-Analysis [44-46]
Systematic Review [47, 48]
Diabetes mellitus, type 1 Meta-Analysis [49]
Case Series [42]
Cohort Study [15, 50-55]
Diabetes mellitus, type 2 Meta-Analysis [56]
Case Series [42]
Longitudinal Study [57]
Cohort Study [49, 53, 57-62]
Heart conditions (such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, or cardiomyopathies) Meta-Analysis [63-65]
Cohort Study [15, 16]
Smoking, current and former Meta-Analysis [44, 64, 66-73]
Obesity Meta-Analysis [74-76]
Cohort [24, 77-85]
Pregnancy Systematic Review [86, 87]
Case Control [88, 89]
Case Series [90-92]
Cohort Study [93-96]
Supported by mostly cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies (if there is a systematic review or meta-analysis available, it represents one condition in a larger category of conditions) Children with certain underlying conditions Systematic Review [97, 98]
Cross-Sectional Study [99-101]
Cohort Study [102-110]
Case Series [111, 112]
Down syndrome Cohort Study [113, 114]
HIV Cohort Study [32, 115-117]
Case Series [118-120]
Neurologic conditions Review [121]
Cross-Sectional Study [99]
Cohort Study [16, 102]
Overweight Cohort Study [80]
Case Series [85]
Other lung disease (including interstitial lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension) Cohort [122-124]
Sickle cell disease Cohort [111, 112, 125, 126]
Case Series [111, 126-141]
Solid organ or blood stem cell transplantation Meta-Analysis [83]
Case Series [142-151]
Cohort [152]
Substance use disorders Case-Control Study [153-155]
Cohort Study [156, 157]
Use of corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications Cohort Study [158]
Cross Sectional [159]
Case Series [160-162]
Supported by mostly case series, case reports or, if other study design, the sample size is small (and no systematic review or meta-analysis available were reviewed) Cystic fibrosis Case Series [163-165]
Cohort [166]
Thalassemia Case Series [167-170]
Cross Sectional [171]
Supported by mixed evidence Asthma Meta-Analysis [172-174]
Review [175]
Case Series [176]
Cohort Study [16, 40, 177-182]
Hypertension Meta-Analysis [64, 183-186]
Systematic Review [187]
Cohort Study [15, 16, 19, 179, 188-194]
Case Series [195]
Liver disease Meta-Analysis [196-200]
Cohort [19, 28, 41, 201-215]
Case-Control [216-221]
Cross sectional [222]
Case Series [223-225]
Immune deficiencies Meta-Analysis [226]
Cohort [227-229]
Case Series [142, 143, 151, 230-235]

Literature cited above was provided and reviewed by CDC reviewers, categorized, and added to the table (if not already on the previous underlying medical conditions list [originally released in March 2020]). The following categories were used:

Supported by meta-analysis/systematic review: Defined as having a significant association in at least one meta-analysis or systematic review.

Supported by mostly cohort, case-control, or cross sectional studies (if there is a systematic review or meta-analysis available, it represents one condition in a larger group of conditions): Defined as having an association in cohort, case-control, or cross sectional studies; may include systematic review or meta-analysis that represents one condition in a larger group of conditions (for example, kidney transplant under the category of solid organ or blood stem cell transplantation).

Supported by mostly case series, case reports or, if other study design, the sample size is small (and no systematic review or meta-analysis were available to review): Defined as having an association in one or more case series studies. If there are cohort or case-control studies, sample sizes were small. Conditions included may be rare.

Supported by mixed evidence: Defined as having an association in at least one meta-analysis or systematic review and additional multiple studies or reviews that reached different conclusions about risk associated with a condition.

References:

  1. Saini, K.S., et al., Mortality in patients with cancer and coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and pooled analysis of 52 studies. Eur J Cancer, 2020. 139: p. 43-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2020.08.011external icon
  2. Zhou, Y., et al., Comorbidities and the risk of severe or fatal outcomes associated with coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 99: p. 47-56. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.029external icon
  3. Liang, W., et al., Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. Lancet Oncol, 2020. 21(3): p. 335-337. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30096-6external icon
  4. Nepogodiev, D., et al., Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study. The Lancet, 2020. 396(10243): p. 27-38. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31182-Xexternal icon
  5. Lee, L.Y., et al., COVID-19 mortality in patients with cancer on chemotherapy or other anticancer treatments: a prospective cohort study. Lancet, 2020. 395(10241): p. 1919-1926. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31173-9external icon
  6. Robilotti, E.V., et al., Determinants of COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer. Nat Med, 2020. 26(8): p. 1218-1223. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0979-0external icon
  7. Zhang, H., et al., Outcomes of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in 107 patients with cancer from Wuhan, China. Cancer, 2020. 126(17): p. 4023-4031. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33042external icon
  8. Kuderer, N.M., et al., Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study. Lancet, 2020. 395(10241): p. 1907-1918. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31187-9external icon
  9. Wang, Q., N.A. Berger, and R. Xu, Analyses of Risk, Racial Disparity, and Outcomes Among US Patients With Cancer and COVID-19 Infection. JAMA Oncol, 2020. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.6178external icon
  10. Pranata, R., et al., Impact of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases on mortality and severity of COVID-19-systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 2020. 29(8): p. 104949. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104949external icon
  11. Wang, B., et al., Does comorbidity increase the risk of patients with COVID-19: evidence from meta-analysis. Aging (Albany NY), 2020. 12(7): p. 6049-6057. doi: 10.18632/aging.103000external icon
  12. Ssentongo, P., et al., Association of cardiovascular disease and 10 other pre-existing comorbidities with COVID-19 mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2020. 15(8): p. e0238215. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0238215external icon
  13. Khan, M.M.A., et al., Effects of underlying morbidities on the occurrence of deaths in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health, 2020. 10(2): p. 020503. doi: 10.7189/jogh.10.020503pdf iconexternal icon
  14. Martins-Filho, P.R., C.S.S. Tavares, and V.S. Santos, Factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19. A quantitative evidence synthesis of clinical and laboratory data. Eur J Intern Med, 2020. 76: p. 97-99. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2020.04.043external icon
  15. Chen, R., et al., Risk Factors of Fatal Outcome in Hospitalized Subjects With Coronavirus Disease 2019 From a Nationwide Analysis in China. Chest, 2020. 158(1): p. 97-105. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.04.010external icon
  16. Williamson, E.J., et al., Factors associated with COVID-19-related death using OpenSAFELY. Nature, 2020. 584(7821): p. 430-436. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2521-4external icon
  17. Wang, L., et al., Coronavirus disease 2019 in elderly patients: Characteristics and prognostic factors based on 4-week follow-up. J Infect, 2020. 80(6): p. 639-645. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.019external icon
  18. Fajgenbaum, D.C., et al., Treatments Administered to the First 9152 Reported Cases of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Infect Dis Ther, 2020. 9(3): p. 435-449. doi: 10.1007/s40121-020-00303-8external icon
  19. Gottlieb, M., et al., Clinical Course and Factors Associated With Hospitalization and Critical Illness Among COVID-19 Patients in Chicago, Illinois. Acad Emerg Med, 2020. 27(10): p. 963-973. doi: 10.1111/acem.14104external icon
  20. Fernandes, D.M., et al., Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Clinical Syndromes and Predictors of Disease Severity in Hospitalized Children and Youth. J Pediatr, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.11.016external icon
  21. Hernández-Galdamez, D.R., et al., Increased Risk of Hospitalization and Death in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Noncommunicable Diseases and Modifiable Risk Factors in Mexico. Arch Med Res, 2020. 51(7): p. 683-689. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2020.07.003external icon
  22. Menezes Soares, R.D.C., L.R. Mattos, and L.M. Raposo, Risk Factors for Hospitalization and Mortality due to COVID-19 in Espirito Santo State, Brazil. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2020. 103(3): p. 1184-1190. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0483external icon
  23. Oetjens, M.T., et al., Electronic health record analysis identifies kidney disease as the leading risk factor for hospitalization in confirmed COVID-19 patients. PloS one, 2020. 15(11): p. e0242182. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242182external icon
  24. Petrilli, C.M., et al., Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City: prospective cohort study. Bmj, 2020. 369: p. m1966. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1966external icon
  25. Reilev, M., et al., Characteristics and predictors of hospitalization and death in the first 11 122 cases with a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in Denmark: a nationwide cohort. International journal of epidemiology, 2020. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyaa140external icon
  26. Suleyman, G., et al., Clinical Characteristics and Morbidity Associated With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in a Series of Patients in Metropolitan Detroit. JAMA Netw Open, 2020. 3(6): p. e2012270. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.12270external icon
  27. Rastad, H., et al., Factors associated with the poor outcomes in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s40200-020-00646-6external icon
  28. Fried, M.W., et al., Patient Characteristics and Outcomes of 11,721 Patients with COVID19 Hospitalized Across the United States. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 2020. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1268external icon
  29. Kolhe, N.V., et al., Acute kidney injury associated with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study. PLoS Med, 2020. 17(10): p. e1003406. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003406external icon
  30. Bowe, B., et al., Acute Kidney Injury in a National Cohort of Hospitalized US Veterans with COVID-19. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol, 2020. doi: 10.2215/CJN.09610620external icon
  31. McKeigue, P.M., et al., Rapid Epidemiological Analysis of Comorbidities and Treatments as risk factors for COVID-19 in Scotland (REACT-SCOT): A population-based case-control study. PLoS medicine, 2020. 17(10): p. e1003374. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003374external icon
  32. Boulle, A., et al., Risk factors for COVID-19 death in a population cohort study from the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Clin Infect Dis, 2020. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1198external icon
  33. Parra-Bracamonte, G.M., N. Lopez-Villalobos, and F.E. Parra-Bracamonte, Clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality of patients with COVID-19 in a large data set from Mexico. Annals of Epidemiology, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.08.005external icon
  34. Ng, J.H., et al., Outcomes of patients with end-stage kidney disease hospitalized with COVID-19. Kidney international, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.07.030external icon
  35. Omrani, A.S., et al., The first consecutive 5000 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 from Qatar; a nation-wide cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases, 2020. 20(1): p. 777. doi: 10.1186/s12879-020-05511-8external icon
  36. Iaccarino, G., et al., Gender differences in predictors of intensive care units admission among COVID-19 patients: The results of the SARS-RAS study of the italian society of hypertension. PLoS ONE, 2020. 15(10 October): p. e0237297. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0237297external icon
  37. Gu, T., et al., History of coronary heart disease increased the mortality rate of patients with COVID-19: a nested case-control study. BMJ Open, 2020. 10(9): p. e038976. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038976external icon
  38. Myers, L.C., et al., Characteristics of Hospitalized Adults With COVID-19 in an Integrated Health Care System in California. Jama, 2020. 323(21): p. 2195-2198. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.7202external icon
  39. Hirsch, J.S., et al., Acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Kidney Int, 2020. 98(1): p. 209-218. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.05.006external icon
  40. Gold, J.A.W., et al., Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of Adult Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 – Georgia, March 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(18): p. 545-550. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6918e1
  41. Garg, S., et al., Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 – COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1-30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(15): p. 458-464. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e3
  42. Richardson, S., et al., Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA, 2020. 323(20): p. 2052-2059. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6775external icon
  43. Lee, J.Y., et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in Daegu, South Korea. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 98: p. 462-466. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.017external icon
  44. Lippi, G. and B.M. Henry, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respir Med, 2020. 167: p. 105941. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.105941external icon
  45. Dorjee, K., et al., Prevalence and predictors of death and severe disease in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of 77 studies and 38,000 patients. PLoS One, 2020. 15(12): p. e0243191. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243191external icon
  46. Xiao, W.W., et al., Is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease an independent predictor for adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 patients? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, 2020. 24(21): p. 11421-11427. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202011_23635external icon
  47. Izcovich, A., et al., Prognostic factors for severity and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19: A systematic review. PLoS One, 2020. 15(11): p. e0241955. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241955external icon
  48. Rabbani, G., et al., Pre-existing COPD is associated with an increased risk of mortality and severity in COVID-19: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Respir Med, 2020. doi: 10.1080/17476348.2021.1866547external icon
  49. Fadini, G.P., et al., Newly-diagnosed diabetes and admission hyperglycemia predict COVID-19 severity by aggravating respiratory deterioration. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2020. 168: p. 108374. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108374external icon
  50. Barron, E., et al., Associations of type 1 and type 2 diabetes with COVID-19-related mortality in England: a whole-population study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, 2020. 8(10): p. 813-822. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30272-2external icon
  51. Gregory, J.M., et al., COVID-19 Severity Is Tripled in the Diabetes Community: A Prospective Analysis of the Pandemic’s Impact in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2020. doi: 10.2337/dc20-2260external icon
  52. Duarte-Salles, T., et al., Baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes of 55,270 children and adolescents diagnosed with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 with influenza in France, Germany, Spain, South Korea and the United States: an international network cohort study. medRxiv, 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.10.29.20222083external icon
  53. Bode, B., et al., Glycemic Characteristics and Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients Hospitalized in the United States. J Diabetes Sci Technol, 2020. 14(4): p. 813-821. doi: 10.1177/1932296820924469external icon
  54. Vangoitsenhoven, R., et al., No Evidence of Increased Hospitalization Rate for COVID-19 in Community-Dwelling Patients With Type 1 Diabetes. 2020. 43(10): p. e118-e119. doi: 10.2337/dc20-1246external icon
  55. Cardona-Hernandez, R., et al., Children and youth with diabetes are not at increased risk for hospitalization due to COVID-19. Pediatr Diabetes, 2020. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13158external icon
  56. Fadini, G.P., et al., Prevalence and impact of diabetes among people infected with SARS-CoV-2. J Endocrinol Invest, 2020. 43(6): p. 867-869. doi: 10.1007/s40618-020-01236-2external icon
  57. Zhu, L., et al., Association of Blood Glucose Control and Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 and Pre-existing Type 2 Diabetes. Cell Metabolism, 2020. 31(6): p. 1068-1077.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.021external icon
  58. Chen, Y., et al., Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Diabetes and COVID-19 in Association With Glucose-Lowering Medication. Diabetes Care, 2020. 43(7): p. 1399-1407. doi: 10.2337/dc20-0660external icon
  59. Sathish, T., et al., Proportion of newly diagnosed diabetes in COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab, 2020. doi: 10.1111/dom.14269external icon
  60. de Almeida-Pititto, B., et al., Severity and mortality of COVID 19 in patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Diabetol Metab Syndr, 2020. 12: p. 75. doi: 10.1186/s13098-020-00586-4external icon
  61. Kow, C.S. and S.S. Hasan, Mortality risk with preadmission metformin use in patients with COVID-19 and diabetes: A meta-analysis. J Med Virol, 2020. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26498external icon
  62. Perez-Belmonte, L.M., et al., Mortality and other adverse outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted for COVID-19 in association with glucose-lowering drugs: a nationwide cohort study. BMC Med, 2020. 18(1): p. 359. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01832-2external icon
  63. Del Sole, F., et al., Features of severe COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Invest, 2020. 50(10): p. e13378. doi: 10.1111/eci.13378external icon
  64. Zheng, Z., et al., Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. J Infect, 2020. 81(2): p. e16-e25. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.04.021external icon
  65. Yang, J., et al., Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 94: p. 91-95. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017external icon
  66. Patanavanich, R. and S.A. Glantz, Smoking Is Associated With COVID-19 Progression: A Meta-analysis. Nicotine Tob Res, 2020. 22(9): p. 1653-1656. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntaa082external icon
  67. Guo, F.R., Active smoking is associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): An update of a meta-analysis. Tob Induc Dis, 2020. 18: p. 37. doi: 10.18332/tid/121915external icon
  68. Zhao, Q., et al., The impact of COPD and smoking history on the severity of COVID-19: A systemic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol, 2020. 92(10): p. 1915-1921. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25889external icon
  69. Lippi, G. and B.M. Henry, Active smoking is not associated with severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Eur J Intern Med, 2020. 75: p. 107-108. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2020.03.014external icon
  70. Alqahtani, J.S., et al., Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One, 2020. 15(5): p. e0233147. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0233147external icon
  71. Li, J., et al., Meta-analysis investigating the relationship between clinical features, outcomes, and severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia. Am J Infect Control, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.008external icon
  72. Farsalinos, K., et al., Current smoking, former smoking, and adverse outcome among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ther Adv Chronic Dis, 2020. 11: p. 2040622320935765. doi: 10.1177/2040622320935765external icon
  73. Sanchez-Ramirez, D.C. and D. Mackey, Underlying respiratory diseases, specifically COPD, and smoking are associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Med, 2020. 171: p. 106096. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106096external icon
  74. Yang, J., J. Hu, and C. Zhu, Obesity aggravates COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Virol, 2020. doi: 10.1002/jmv.26237external icon
  75. Tsankov, B.K., et al., Severe COVID-19 Infection and Pediatric Comorbidities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Infect Dis, 2020. 103: p. 246-256. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.163external icon
  76. Foldi, M., et al., Obesity is a risk factor for developing critical condition in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev, 2020. 21(10): p. e13095. doi: 10.1111/obr.13095external icon
  77. Lighter, J., et al., Obesity in Patients Younger Than 60 Years Is a Risk Factor for COVID-19 Hospital Admission. Clin Infect Dis, 2020. 71(15): p. 896-897. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa415external icon
  78. Tartof, S.Y., et al., Obesity and Mortality Among Patients Diagnosed With COVID-19: Results From an Integrated Health Care Organization. Ann Intern Med, 2020. 173(10): p. 773-781. doi: 10.7326/M20-3742external icon
  79. Hur, K., et al., Factors Associated With Intubation and Prolonged Intubation in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2020. 163(1): p. 170-178. doi: 10.1177/0194599820929640external icon
  80. Hamer, M., et al., Overweight, obesity, and risk of hospitalization for COVID-19: A community-based cohort study of adults in the United Kingdom. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020. 117(35): p. 21011-21013. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2011086117external icon
  81. Simonnet, A., et al., High Prevalence of Obesity in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. Obesity (Silver Spring), 2020. 28(7): p. 1195-1199. doi: 10.1002/oby.22831external icon
  82. Palaiodimos, L., et al., Severe obesity, increasing age and male sex are independently associated with worse in-hospital outcomes, and higher in-hospital mortality, in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in the Bronx, New York. Metabolism, 2020. 108: p. 154262. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154262external icon
  83. Aziz, F., et al., Early Report on Published Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Compared to Nontransplant Patients Infected With Coronavirus Disease 2019. Transplant Proc, 2020. 52(9): p. 2659-2662. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2020.07.002external icon
  84. Ko, J.Y., et al., Risk Factors for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)–Associated Hospitalization: COVID-19–Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2020. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1419external icon
  85. Nakeshbandi, M., et al., The impact of obesity on COVID-19 complications: a retrospective cohort study. Int J Obes (Lond), 2020. 44(9): p. 1832-1837. doi: 10.1038/s41366-020-0648-xexternal icon
  86. Yang, Z., et al., Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and pregnancy: a systematic review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 2020: p. 1-4. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2020.1759541external icon
  87. Allotey, J., et al., Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2020. 370: p. m3320. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3320external icon
  88. Collin, J., et al., Public Health Agency of Sweden’s Brief Report: Pregnant and postpartum women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in intensive care in Sweden. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2020. 99(7): p. 819-822. doi: 10.1111/aogs.13901external icon
  89. Li, N., et al., Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes of Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia: A Case-Control Study. Clin Infect Dis, 2020. 71(16): p. 2035-2041. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa352external icon
  90. Chen, L., et al., Clinical Characteristics of Pregnant Women with Covid-19 in Wuhan, China. N Engl J Med, 2020. 382(25): p. e100. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2009226external icon
  91. Breslin, N., et al., Coronavirus disease 2019 infection among asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women: two weeks of confirmed presentations to an affiliated pair of New York City hospitals. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM, 2020. 2(2): p. 100118. doi: doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100118external icon
  92. Lokken, E.M., et al., Clinical Characteristics of 46 Pregnant Women with a SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Washington State. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology., 2020. 223 (6). 911.e1-911.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2020.05.031external icon
  93. Pierce-Williams, R.A.M., et al., Clinical course of severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019 in hospitalized pregnancies: a United States cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM, 2020. 2(3). doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2020.100134external icon
  94. Savasi, V.M., et al., Clinical Findings and Disease Severity in Hospitalized Pregnant Women With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Obstet Gynecol, 2020. 136(2): p. 252-258. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003979external icon
  95. Ellington, S., et al., Characteristics of Women of Reproductive Age with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Pregnancy Status – United States, January 22-June 7, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(25): p. 769-775. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6925a1external icon
  96. Zambrano, L.D., et al., Update: Characteristics of Symptomatic Women of Reproductive Age with Laboratory-Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Pregnancy Status – United States, January 22-October 3, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(44): p. 1641-1647. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6944e3external icon
  97. Alsaied, T., et al., Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic Implications in Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Disease. J Am Heart Assoc, 2020. 9(12). doi: 10.1161/JAHA.120.017224external icon
  98. Sanna, G., et al., Children’s heart and COVID-19: Up-to-date evidence in the form of a systematic review. Eur J Pediatr, 2020. 179(7): p. 1079-1087. doi: 10.1007/s00431-020-03699-0external icon
  99. Shekerdemian, L.S., et al., Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Admitted to US and Canadian Pediatric Intensive Care Units. JAMA Pediatr, 2020. 174(9): p. 868-873. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1948external icon
  100. Sabatino, J., et al., COVID-19 and Congenital Heart Disease: Results from a Nationwide Survey. J Clin Med, 2020. 9(6). p. 1-8. doi: 10.3390/jcm9061774external icon
  101. Bellino, S., et al., COVID-19 Disease Severity Risk Factors for Pediatric Patients in Italy. Pediatrics, 2020. 146(4). doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-009399external icon
  102. Parri, N., et al., Children with Covid-19 in Pediatric Emergency Departments in Italy. N Engl J Med, 2020. 383(2): p. 187-190. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2007617external icon
  103. DeBiasi, R.L., et al., Severe Coronavirus Disease-2019 in Children and Young Adults in the Washington, DC, Metropolitan Region. J Pediatr, 2020. 223: p. 199-203.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.007external icon
  104. Chao, J.Y., et al., Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Hospitalized and Critically Ill Children and Adolescents with Coronavirus Disease 2019 at a Tertiary Care Medical Center in New York City. J Pediatr, 2020. 223: p. 14-19.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.006external icon
  105. Kim, D.W., et al., The Correlation of Comorbidities on the Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: an Observational Study Based on the Korean National Health Insurance Big Data. Journal of Korean medical science, 2020. 35(26). doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e243external icon
  106. Gonzalez-Dambrauskas, S., et al., Pediatric Critical Care and COVID-19. Pediatrics, 2020. 146(3). doi:10.1542/peds.2020-1766external icon
  107. Gotzinger, F., et al., COVID-19 in children and adolescents in Europe: a multinational, multicentre cohort study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 2020. 4(9): p. 653-661. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30177-2external icon
  108. Zachariah, P., et al., Epidemiology, Clinical Features, and Disease Severity in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Children’s Hospital in New York City, New York. JAMA Pediatr, 2020. 174(10). doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2430external icon
  109. Verma, S., et al., Characteristics of Hospitalized Children With SARS-CoV-2 in the New York City Metropolitan Area. Hosp Pediatr, 2021. 11(1): p. 71-78. doi: 10.1542/hpeds.2020-001917external icon
  110. Leon-Abarca, J.A., Obesity and immunodeficiencies are the main pre-existing conditions associated with mild to moderate COVID-19 in children. Pediatr Obes, 2020. 15(12). doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12713external icon
  111. Oualha, M., et al., Severe and fatal forms of COVID-19 in children. Arch Pediatr, 2020. 27(5): p. 235-238. doi: 10.1016/j.arcped.2020.05.010external icon
  112. Heilbronner, C., et al., Patients with sickle cell disease and suspected COVID-19 in a paediatric intensive care unit. Br J Haematol, 2020. 190(1): p. e21-e24. doi: 10.1111/bjh.16802external icon
  113. Huls, A., et al., An international survey on the impact of COVID-19 in individuals with Down syndrome. medRxiv, 2020. doi:10.1101/2020.11.03.20225359external icon
  114. Clift, A.K., et al., COVID-19 Mortality Risk in Down Syndrome: Results From a Cohort Study Of 8 Million Adults. Ann Intern Med, 2020. doi: 10.7326/M20-4986external icon
  115. Bhaskaran, K., et al., HIV infection and COVID-19 death: a population-based cohort analysis of UK primary care data and linked national death registrations within the OpenSAFELY platform. Lancet HIV, 2020. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30305-2external icon
  116. Hadi, Y.B., et al., Characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with HIV: a multicentre research network study. Aids, 2020. 34(13): p. F3-f8. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002666external icon
  117. Miyashita, H. and T. Kuno, Prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with HIV infection in New York City. HIV Med, 2021. 22(1): p. e1-e2. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12920external icon
  118. Härter, G., et al., COVID-19 in people living with human immunodeficiency virus: a case series of 33 patients. Infection, 2020. 48(5): p. 681-686. doi: 10.1007/s15010-020-01438-zexternal icon
  119. Altuntas Aydin, O., H. Kumbasar Karaosmanoglu, and K. Kart Yasar, HIV/SARS-CoV-2 coinfected patients in Istanbul, Turkey. J Med Virol, 2020. 92(11): p. 2288-2290. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25955external icon
  120. Ho, H.E., et al., Clinical outcomes and immunologic characteristics of Covid-19 in people with HIV. J Infect Dis, 2020. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa380external icon
  121. Herman, C., K. Mayer, and A. Sarwal, Scoping review of prevalence of neurologic comorbidities in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Neurology, 2020. 95(2): p. 77-84. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009673external icon
  122. Drake, T.M., et al., Outcome of Hospitalization for COVID-19 in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease. An International Multicenter Study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 2020. 202(12): p. 1656-1665. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202007-2794OCexternal icon
  123. Riou, M., et al., Clinical characteristics of and outcomes for patients with COVID-19 and comorbid lung diseases primarily hospitalized in a conventional pulmonology unit: A retrospective study. Respiratory Medical Research, 2020. 79. doi: 10.1016/j.resmer.2020.100801external icon
  124. Sahu, K.K., et al., COVID-19 and restrictive lung disease: A deadly combo to trip off the fine balance. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, 2020. 90(2): p. 395-397. doi: 10.4081/monaldi.2020.1346external icon
  125. Arlet, J.B., et al., Prognosis of patients with sickle cell disease and COVID-19: a French experience. Lancet Haematol, 2020. 7(9): p. e632-e634. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30204-0external icon
  126. Odièvre, M.H., et al., Dramatic improvement after tocilizumab of severe COVID-19 in a child with sickle cell disease and acute chest syndrome. Am J Hematol, 2020. 95(8): p. E192-e194. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25855external icon
  127. McCloskey, K.A., et al., COVID-19 infection and sickle cell disease: a UK centre experience. Br J Haematol, 2020. 190(2): p. e57-e58. doi: 10.1111/bjh.16779external icon
  128. Nur, E., et al., Vaso-occlusive crisis and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease due to 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Am J Hematol, 2020. 95(6): p. 725-726. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25821external icon
  129. Hussain, F.A., et al., COVID-19 infection in patients with sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol, 2020. 189(5): p. 851-852. doi: 10.1111/bjh.16734external icon
  130. Panepinto, J.A., et al., Coronavirus Disease among Persons with Sickle Cell Disease, United States, March 20-May 21, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis, 2020. 26(10): p. 2473-2476. doi: 10.3201/eid2610.202792
  131. Al-Hebshi, A., et al., A Saudi family with sickle cell disease presented with acute crises and COVID-19 infection. Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2020. 67(9).external icon
  132. Allison, D., et al., Red blood cell exchange to avoid intubating a COVID-19 positive patient with sickle cell disease? J Clin Apher, 2020. 35(4): p. 378-381. doi: 10.1002/jca.21809external icon
  133. Appiah-Kubi, A., et al., Varying presentations and favourable outcomes of COVID-19 infection in children and young adults with sickle cell disease: an additional case series with comparisons to published cases. Br J Haematol, 2020. 190(4): p. e221-e224. doi: 10.1111/bjh.17013external icon
  134. Azerad, M.A., et al., Sickle cell disease and COVID-19: Atypical presentations and favorable outcomes. EJHaem, 2020. 1(1). P. 388-341. doi: 10.1002/jha2.74external icon
  135. Chakravorty, S., et al., COVID-19 in patients with sickle cell disease – a case series from a UK Tertiary Hospital. Haematologica, 2020. 105(11). doi: 10.3324/haematol.2020.254250external icon
  136. De Luna, G., et al., Rapid and severe Covid-19 pneumonia with severe acute chest syndrome in a sickle cell patient successfully treated with tocilizumab. Am J Hematol, 2020. 95(7): p. 876-878. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25833external icon
  137. Ershler, W.B. and M.E. Holbrook, Sickle cell anemia and COVID-19: Use of voxelotor to avoid transfusion. Transfusion, 2020. 60(12): p. 3066-3067. doi: 10.1111/trf.16068external icon
  138. Jacob, S., A. Dworkin, and E. Romanos-Sirakis, A pediatric patient with sickle cell disease presenting with severe anemia and splenic sequestration in the setting of COVID-19. Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2020. 67(12). doi: 10.1002/pbc.28511external icon
  139. Justino, C.C., et al., COVID-19 as a trigger of acute chest syndrome in a pregnant woman with sickle cell anemia. Hematol Transfus Cell Ther, 2020. 42(3): p. 212-214. doi: 10.1016/j.htct.2020.06.003external icon
  140. Morrone, K.A., et al., Acute chest syndrome in the setting of SARS-COV-2 infections-A case series at an urban medical center in the Bronx. Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2020. 67(11). doi: 10.1002/pbc.28579external icon
  141. Balanchivadze, N., et al., Impact of COVID-19 Infection on 24 Patients with Sickle Cell Disease. One Center Urban Experience, Detroit, MI, USA. Hemoglobin, 2020. 44(4): p. 284-289. doi: 10.1080/03630269.2020.1797775external icon
  142. Akalin, E., et al., Covid-19 and Kidney Transplantation. N Engl J Med, 2020. 382(25): p. 2475-2477. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2011117external icon
  143. Ketcham, S.W., et al., Coronavirus Disease-2019 in Heart Transplant Recipients in Southeastern Michigan: A Case Series. J Card Fail, 2020. 26(6): p. 457-461. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.05.008external icon
  144. Latif, F., et al., Characteristics and Outcomes of Recipients of Heart Transplant With Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Cardiol, 2020. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.2159external icon
  145. Zhu, L., et al., Successful recovery of COVID-19 pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with long-term immunosuppression. Am J Transplant, 2020. 20(7): p. 1859-1863. doi: 10.1111/ajt.15869external icon
  146. Fernández-Ruiz, M., et al., COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: A single-center case series from Spain. Am J Transplant, 2020. 20(7): p. 1849-1858. doi: 10.1111/ajt.15929external icon
  147. Travi, G., et al., Clinical outcome in solid organ transplant recipients with COVID-19: A single-center experience. Am J Transplant, 2020. 20(9): p. 2628-2629. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16069external icon
  148. Tschopp, J., et al., First experience of SARS-CoV-2 infections in solid organ transplant recipients in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. Am J Transplant, 2020. 20(10): p. 2876-2882. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16062external icon
  149. Yi, S.G., et al., Early Experience With COVID-19 and Solid Organ Transplantation at a US High-volume Transplant Center. Transplantation, 2020. 104(11): p. 2208-2214. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003339external icon
  150. Fung, M., et al., Clinical outcomes and serologic response in solid organ transplant recipients with COVID-19: A case series from the United States. Am J Transplant, 2020. 20(11): p. 3225-3233. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16079external icon
  151. Hoek, R.A.S., et al., COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: a single-center experience. Transpl Int, 2020. 33(9): p. 1099-1105. doi: 10.1111/tri.13662external icon
  152. Kates, O.S., et al., COVID-19 in solid organ transplant: A multi-center cohort study. Clin Infect Dis, 2020. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1097external icon
  153. Allen, B., et al., Association of substance use disorders and drug overdose with adverse COVID-19 outcomes in New York City: January-October 2020. J Public Health (Oxf), 2020. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdaa241external icon
  154. Wang, Q.Q., Kaelber, D.C., Xu, R. et al. COVID-19 risk and outcomes in patients with substance use disorders: analyses from electronic health records in the United States. Mol Psychiatry 26, 30–39 (2021). doi:10.1038/s41380-020-00880-7external icon
  155. Ji, W., et al., Effect of Underlying Comorbidities on the Infection and Severity of COVID-19 in Korea: a Nationwide Case-Control Study. J Korean Med Sci, 2020. 35(25): p. e237. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e237external icon
  156. Lee, S.W., et al., Association between mental illness and COVID-19 susceptibility and clinical outcomes in South Korea: a nationwide cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry, 2020. 7(12): p. 1025-1031. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30421-1external icon
  157. Baillargeon, J., et al., The Impact of Substance Use Disorder on COVID-19 Outcomes. Psychiatr Serv, 2020: p. appips202000534. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.202000534external icon
  158. Brenner, E.J., et al., Corticosteroids, But Not TNF Antagonists, Are Associated With Adverse COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Results From an International Registry. Gastroenterology, 2020. 159(2): p. 481-491.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.032external icon
  159. Michelena, X., et al., Incidence of COVID-19 in a cohort of adult and paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases treated with targeted biologic and synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Semin Arthritis Rheum, 2020. 50(4): p. 564-570. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.05.001external icon
  160. Di Giorgio, A., et al., Health status of patients with autoimmune liver disease during SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in northern Italy. J Hepatol, 2020. 73(3): p. 702-705. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.008external icon
  161. Marlais, M., et al., The severity of COVID-19 in children on immunosuppressive medication. Lancet Child Adolesc Health, 2020. 4(7): p. e17-e18. doi: 10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30145-0pdf iconexternal icon
  162. Montero-Escribano, P., et al., Anti-CD20 and COVID-19 in multiple sclerosis and related disorders: A case series of 60 patients from Madrid, Spain. Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2020. 42. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2020.102185external icon
  163. McClenaghan, E., et al., The global impact of SARS-CoV-2 in 181 people with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros, 2020. 19(6): p. 868-871. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2020.10.003external icon
  164. Moeller, A., et al., COVID-19 in children with underlying chronic respiratory diseases: survey results from 174 centres. ERJ Open Res, 2020. 6(4). doi: 10.1183/23120541.00409-2020external icon
  165. Cosgriff, R., et al., A multinational report to characterise SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros, 2020. 19(3): p. 355-358. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2020.04.012external icon
  166. Bain, R., et al., Clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with cystic fibrosis: An international observational study. J Cyst Fibros, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2020.11.021external icon
  167. Motta, I., et al., SARS-CoV-2 infection in beta thalassemia: Preliminary data from the Italian experience. Am J Hematol, 2020. 95(8): p. E198-e199. doi: 10.1002/ajh.25840external icon
  168. Pinto, V.M., et al., COVID-19 in a Patient with beta-Thalassemia Major and Severe Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Hemoglobin, 2020. 44(3): p. 218-220. doi: 10.1080/03630269.2020.1779082external icon
  169. Sasi, S., et al., A Case of COVID-19 in a Patient with Asymptomatic Hemoglobin D Thalassemia and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency. Am J Case Rep, 2020. 21. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.925788external icon
  170. Sarbay, H., A. Atay, and B. Malbora, COVID-19 Infection in a Child With Thalassemia Major After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2021. 43(1): p. 33-34. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001895external icon
  171. Karimi, M., et al., Prevalence and mortality in β-thalassaemias due to outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19): the nationwide Iranian experience. Br J Haematol, 2020. 190(3): p. e137-e140. doi: 10.1111/bjh.16911external icon
  172. Wang, Y., et al., Does Asthma Increase the Mortality of Patients with COVID-19?: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2020: p. 1-7. doi: 10.1159/000510953external icon
  173. Liu, S., et al., Prevalence of comorbid asthma and related outcomes in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology in Practice, 2020. 9(2): p. 693-701. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.11.054external icon
  174. Sunjaya, A.P., et al., Asthma and risk of infection, hospitalisation, ICU admission and mortality from COVID-19: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Asthma, 2021: p. 1-22. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2021.1888116external icon
  175. Morais-Almeida, M., et al., Asthma and the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: A Literature Review. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 2020. 181(9): p. 680-688. doi: 10.1159/000509057external icon
  176. Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 – United States, February 12-March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(13): p. 382-386.
  177. Broadhurst, R., et al., Asthma in COVID-19 Hospitalizations: An Overestimated Risk Factor? Ann Am Thorac Soc, 2020. 17(12): p. 1645-1648. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202006-613RL external icon
  178. Caminati, M., et al., Asthma in a large COVID-19 cohort: Prevalence, features, and determinants of COVID-19 disease severity. Respir Med, 2020. 176. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2020.106261external icon
  179. Javanmardi, F., et al., Prevalence of underlying diseases in died cases of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2020. 15(10). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241265external icon
  180. Schultze, A., et al., Risk of COVID-19-related death among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma prescribed inhaled corticosteroids: an observational cohort study using the OpenSAFELY platform. Lancet Respir Med, 2020. 8(11): p. 1106-1120. doi: 10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30415-Xexternal icon
  181. Chao, J.Y., et al., Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Hospitalized and Critically Ill Children and Adolescents with Coronavirus Disease 2019 at a Tertiary Care Medical Center in New York City. J Pediatr, 2020. 223: p. 14-19 e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.006external icon
  182. Mahdavinia, M., et al., Asthma prolongs intubation in COVID-19. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2020. 8(7): p. 2388-2391. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.05.006external icon
  183. Matsushita, K., et al., The Relationship of COVID-19 Severity with Cardiovascular Disease and Its Traditional Risk Factors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Glob Heart, 2020. 15(1): p. 64. doi: 10.5334/gh.814external icon
  184. Wu, T., et al., Multi-organ Dysfunction in Patients with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Aging Dis, 2020. 11(4): p. 874-894. doi: 10.14336/AD.2020.0520external icon
  185. Guo, X., Y. Zhu, and Y. Hong, Decreased Mortality of COVID-19 With Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors Therapy in Patients With Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis. Hypertension, 2020. 76(2): p. e13-e14. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15572external icon
  186. Zhang, J., et al., Association of hypertension with the severity and fatality of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect, 2020. 148: p. e106. doi: 10.1017/S095026882000117Xexternal icon
  187. Pranata, R., et al., Hypertension is associated with increased mortality and severity of disease in COVID-19 pneumonia: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst, 2020. 21(2): p. 1470320320926899. doi: 10.1177/1470320320926899external icon
  188. Ioannou, G.N., et al., Risk Factors for Hospitalization, Mechanical Ventilation, or Death Among 10 131 US Veterans With SARS-CoV-2 Infection. JAMA Network Open, 2020. 3(9): p. e2022310-e2022310. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.22310external icon
  189. Iaccarino, G., et al., Age and Multimorbidity Predict Death Among COVID-19 Patients: Results of the SARS-RAS Study of the Italian Society of Hypertension. Hypertension, 2020. 76(2): p. 366-372. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15324external icon
  190. Guan, W.J., et al., Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with COVID-19 in China: a nationwide analysis. Eur Respir J, 2020. 55(5). doi 10.1183/13993003.00547-2020external icon
  191. Kim, L., et al., Risk Factors for Intensive Care Unit Admission and In-hospital Mortality among Hospitalized Adults Identified through the U.S. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). Clin Infect Dis, 2020. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1012external icon
  192. Ran, J., et al., Blood pressure control and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 infection in patients with concomitant hypertension in Wuhan, China. Hypertens Res, 2020. 43(11): p. 1267-1276. doi: 10.1038/s41440-020-00541-wexternal icon
  193. Yanover, C., et al., What Factors Increase the Risk of Complications in SARS-CoV-2-Infected Patients? A Cohort Study in a Nationwide Israeli Health Organization. JMIR Public Health Surveill, 2020. 6(3): p. e20872. doi: 10.2196/20872external icon
  194. Killerby, M.E., et al., Characteristics Associated with Hospitalization Among Patients with COVID-19 – Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, March-April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 2020. 69(25): p. 790-794. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6925e1external icon
  195. Chen, R., et al., Influence of blood pressure control and application of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors on the outcomes in COVID-19 patients with hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), 2020. 22(11): p. 1974-1983. doi: 10.1111/jch.14038external icon
  196. Boettler, T., et al., Impact of COVID-19 on the care of patients with liver disease: EASL-ESCMID position paper after 6 months of the pandemic. JHEP Rep, 2020. 2(5): p. 100169. doi: 10.1016/j.jhepr.2020.100169external icon
  197. Sharma, A., et al., Liver disease and poor outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalizations-a meta-analysis. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 283A-284A.external icon
  198. Kovalic, A.J., S.K. Satapathy, and P.J. Thuluvath, Prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with COVID-19 and their clinical outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hepatol Int, 2020. 14(5): p. 612-620. doi: 10.1007/s12072-020-10078-2external icon
  199. Patel, U., et al., Age-Adjusted Risk Factors Associated with Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation Utilization Amongst COVID-19 Hospitalizations-a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. SN Compr Clin Med, 2020: p. 1-10. doi: 10.1007/s42399-020-00476-wexternal icon
  200. Plasencia-Urizarri, T.M., R. Aguilera-Rodriguez, and L.E. Almaguer-Mederos, Comorbidities and clinical severity of COVID-19: systematic review and meta-analysis. [Spanish]. Revista Habanera de Ciencias Medicas, 2020. 19 (no pagination)(e3389).external icon
  201. Zhou, W., et al., Prognosis models for severe and critical COVID-19 based on the charlson and elixhauser comorbidity indices. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 2020. 17(15): p. 2257-2263. doi: 10.7150/ijms.50007external icon
  202. Veloz, M.G., et al., Influence of pre-existing liver disease in the course of COVID-19. in an area with low incidence of SARSCOV2 infection. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 281A-282A.external icon
  203. Trivedi, H., et al., The impact of hepatic steatosis on COVID-19 related outcomes. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 303A-304A.external icon
  204. Suresh, S., et al., Clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 263A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31579external icon
  205. Berenguer, J., et al., Characteristics and predictors of death among 4035 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Spain. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2020. 26(11): p. 1525-1536. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.07.024external icon
  206. Chen, X., et al., Clinical Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 and Hepatitis B Virus Co-infection. Virol Sin, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s12250-020-00276-5external icon
  207. Davidov-Derevyanko, Y., et al., The liver in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 304A-305A. dio: 10.1097/meg.0000000000002048 external icon
  208. Forlano, R., et al., In-hospital mortality is associated with inflammatory response in NAFLD patients admitted for COVID-19. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 282A-283A. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0240400external icon
  209. Harrison, S.L., et al., Comorbidities associated with mortality in 31,461 adults with COVID-19 in the United States: A federated electronic medical record analysis. PLoS Med, 2020. 17(9): p. e1003321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003321external icon
  210. Hashemi, N., et al., Impact of chronic liver disease on outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A multicentre United States experience. Liver Int, 2020. 40(10): p. 2515-2521. doi: 10.1111/liv.14583external icon
  211. Huang, R., et al., Clinical features of COVID-19 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatol Commun, 2020. doi: 10.1002/hep4.1592external icon
  212. Kim, D., et al., Predictors of Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease: US Multi-center Study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2020.09.027external icon
  213. Krishnan, A., et al., Clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with and without pre-existing chronic liver disease. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 262A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31579external icon
  214. Mangia, A., et al., Are hcv antibodies positive cirrhotic patients at lower risk of death as compared to cirrhotic of different etiologies when infected by COVID-19? Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 259A.external icon
  215. Satapathy, S.K., et al., Acute-on-chronic liver failure related to COVID-19 infection is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 80A-81A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31578external icon
  216. Singh, S. and A. Khan, Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Among Patients With Preexisting Liver Disease in the United States: A Multicenter Research Network Study. Gastroenterology, 2020. 159(2): p. 768-771.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.064external icon
  217. Liu, J., et al., Longitudinal changes of liver function and hepatitis B reactivation in COVID-19 patients with pre-existing chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatol Res, 2020. 50(11): p. 1211-1221. doi: 10.1111/hepr.13553external icon
  218. Mandour, M.O., et al., Characteristics of SARS-COV2 And liver cirrhosis-a single-centre experience in the United Kingdom. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 261A-262A.external icon
  219. Mendizabal, M., et al., Abnormal liver function tests on admission are associated with increased mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Preliminary results from a large Latin American Cohort. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 79A-80A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31578external icon
  220. Shalimar, et al., Poor outcomes in patients with cirrhosis and Corona Virus Disease-19. Indian J Gastroenterol, 2020. 39(3): p. 285-291. doi: 10.1007/s12664-020-01074-3external icon
  221. Wu, J., et al., Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 70 cases of coronavirus disease and concomitant hepatitis B virus infection: A multicentre descriptive study. J Viral Hepat, 2021. 28(1): p. 80-88. doi: 10.1111/jvh.13404external icon
  222. An, Y.W., et al., Liver function recovery of COVID-19 patients after discharge, a follow-up study. Int J Med Sci, 2021. 18(1): p. 176-186. doi: 10.7150/ijms.50691external icon
  223. Eisa, M., et al., SARS-COV-2 infection in patients with alcohol associated hepatitis: Challenge of treatment options. Hepatology, 2020. 72 (1 SUPPL): p. 300A.external icon
  224. Moon, A.M., et al., High mortality rates for SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease and cirrhosis: Preliminary results from an international registry. J Hepatol, 2020. 73(3): p. 705-708. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2020.05.013external icon
  225. Singh, A.K., et al., Risk and outcomes of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. United European Gastroenterology Journal, 2020: p. 2050640620972602. doi: 10.1177/2050640620972602external icon
  226. Gao, Y., et al., Impacts of immunosuppression and immunodeficiency on COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect, 2020. 81(2): p. e93-e95. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.05.017external icon
  227. Delavari, S., et al., Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic on Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s10875-020-00928-xexternal icon
  228. Shields, A.M., et al., COVID-19 in patients with primary and secondary immunodeficiency: The United Kingdom experience. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.620external icon
  229. Danziger-Isakov, L., et al., Impact of COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant, 2020. 14(10): p. 16449. doi: 10.1111/ajt.16449external icon
  230. Soresina, A., et al., Two X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients develop pneumonia as COVID-19 manifestation but recover. Pediatr Allergy Immunol, 2020. 31(5): p. 565-569. doi: 10.1111/pai.13263external icon
  231. Meyts, I., et al., Coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with inborn errors of immunity: An international study. J Allergy Clin Immunol, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.010external icon
  232. Corse, T., et al., Clinical Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients with Pre-existing, Compromised Immune Systems: A Review of Case Reports. Int J Med Sci, 2020. 17(18): p. 2974-2986. doi: 10.7150/ijms.50537external icon
  233. Ho, H.E., et al., Clinical outcomes and features of COVID-19 in patients with primary immunodeficiencies in New York City. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.052external icon
  234. Pereira, M.R., et al., COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: Initial report from the US epicenter. Am J Transplant, 2020. 20(7): p. 1800-1808. doi: 10.1111/ajt.15941external icon
  235. Iacovoni, A., et al., A case series of novel coronavirus infection in heart transplantation from 2 centers in the pandemic area in the North of Italy. J Heart Lung Transplant, 2020. 39(10): p. 1081-1088. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2020.06.016external icon