ARCHIVED WEBPAGE: This web page is available for historical purposes. CDC is no longer updating this web page and it may not reflect CDC's current COVID-19 guidance. For the latest information, visit CDC's COVID-19 home page.

Important update: Healthcare facilities
CDC has updated select ways to operate healthcare systems effectively in response to COVID-19 vaccination. Learn more
Given new evidence on the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, CDC has updated the guidance for fully vaccinated people. CDC recommends universal indoor masking for all teachers, staff, students, and visitors to K-12 schools, regardless of vaccination status. Children should return to full-time in-person learning in the fall with layered prevention strategies in place.
The White House announced that vaccines will be required for international travelers coming into the United States, with an effective date of November 8, 2021. For purposes of entry into the United States, vaccines accepted will include FDA approved or authorized and WHO Emergency Use Listing vaccines. More information is available here.
Travel requirements to enter the United States are changing, starting November 8, 2021. More information is available here.

Information for School Nurses and Other Healthcare Personnel (HCP) Working in Schools and Child Care Settings

Information for School Nurses and Other Healthcare Personnel (HCP) Working in Schools and Child Care Settings

School nurses and other healthcare personnel (HCP) play an important role in safely keeping schools and child care programs open for in-person learning, in addition to supporting other in-person activities, during the COVID-19 pandemic. School nurses and other HCP routinely evaluate students for symptoms or exposures. They also assist administrators and teachers in implementing prevention strategies; contact tracing; maintaining school-based clinics; implementing school-based testing strategies; and supporting students, families, and staff. The information and resources below can help in performing these new roles and responsibilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Resources for self-care are also included.

COVID-19 and Children

While fewer children had been reported to have COVID-19 compared with adults in the United States, the number of children and adolescents with COVID-19 has been increasing since early in the pandemic. Children can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can get sick with COVID-19, and can spread the virus to others. Most infected children have mild symptoms and some have no symptoms at all. Some children can get severely ill from COVID-19, which means they might require hospitalization, intensive care, a ventilator, or might even die. Among those who do experience COVID-19 symptoms, the symptoms  are typically similar in adults and children and can look like other common illnesses pdf icon[579 KB, 1 Page], such as the common cold, strep throat, influenza, asthma or seasonal allergies. For more information about influenza, visit Influenza Information for Health Professionals and Similarities and Difference between Flu and COVID-19.

Children with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. Additionally, some children may develop the rare but serious condition associated with COVID-19 called Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). For more information on COVID-19 in children, visit Information for Pediatric Healthcare Providers.

Prevention Strategies for Schools and Child Care Settings

Prevention strategies should be layered, using many at the same time, to prevent the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19. The key prevention strategies for schools are:

For information on protecting school staff, visit Protecting K-12 School Staff from COVID-19.

Quarantine, Isolation, Symptom Screening, and Testing for Children

Quarantine and isolation are public health practices used to prevent exposure to people who have or may have a contagious disease, such as COVID-19. Quarantine keeps someone who might have been exposed to the virus away from others, and isolation keeps someone who is infected with the virus away from others. Check your local health department’s website for information about quarantine requirements for your area.

CDC does not currently recommend that schools conduct symptom screenings for students, but parents, guardians, and caregivers are strongly encouraged to monitor their children for signs and symptoms of infectious illness every day. Students who are sick should not attend school in-person. For more information on symptom screening, what to do if a student has symptoms of COVID-19, and when that student can return to in-person school, visit Screening K-12 Students for Symptoms of COVID-19: Limitations and Considerations.

CDC recommends testing for people with any signs or symptoms of COVID-19 and for all close contacts of persons with COVID-19. For more information, visit Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2Information for Pediatric Healthcare Providers, and Considerations for Testing in K-12 Schools.

Additionally, CDC’s Coronavirus Self-Checker is an interactive clinical assessment tool that can be used by school nurses and other HCPs, as well as parents, guardians, and caregivers, to help make decisions on when to seek testing or medical care for persons presenting with COVID-19 symptoms or with a potential exposure to someone with COVID-19.

Contact Tracing in Schools

Contact tracing is essential to prevent the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19. Contact tracing is the process of notifying people (close contacts) of their potential exposure to the virus that causes COVID-19, providing information about the virus, providing instructions for quarantine and monitoring for symptoms, and referring to testing, clinical services, and other services as needed. School nurses and other HCP in schools and child care settings may be asked to help administrators and public health officials with contact tracing. For more information, visit Case Investigation and Contact Tracing in K-12 Schools and discuss with your public health officials.

Infection Prevention Recommendations for School Nurses and Other HCP Providing Care

School nurses and other HCP in schools and child care settings should follow the Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel when providing direct care.

Clinical Services Provided by Schools

Many important clinical services (e.g., immunizations, behavioral health, reproductive health) are provided in schools. Information for providing in-person services (Get your Clinic Ready for COVID-19) and telehealth services (Using Telehealth during the COVID-19 Pandemic) is available. Please also see information on COVID-19 specific considerations:

The infection prevention and control practices, described above, should be followed when providing in-person clinical services. All equipment should be cleaned and disinfected between uses. Environmental infection control recommendations should be followed after caring for someone with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. General information on cleaning, disinfecting, and ventilation in schools is also available, as well as information on maintaining health environments in schools. Additional guidelines provided by school districts and local health authorities should be followed.

Supporting Students and Staff

School staff and other trusted adults can play an important role in helping children make sense of what they hear in a way that is honest, accurate, and reduces anxiety or fear. Resources to help children and young adults:

The pandemic has also been stressful for adults. Resources to help adults manage stress and promote resilience include:

Self-Care for Nurses and other Healthcare Personnel

Providing care to others during the COVID-19 pandemic can lead to stress, anxiety, fear, and other strong emotions. How nurses and other HCP cope with these emotions can affect their well-being, the care they give to others while doing their job, and the well-being of the people they care about outside of work. Resources to help are available:

CDC is learning more about how COVID-19 spreads and affects people and communities. Visit CDC’s COVID-19 website for the latest information and guidance.