Smoking and Cancer
Cancer refers to diseases in which abnormal cells divide out of control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.1,2
There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start — for example, lung cancer begins in the lung and laryngeal cancer begins in the larynx (voice box).1
Symptoms can include:3
- A thickening or lump in any part of the body
- Weight loss or gain with no known reason
- Sores that won't heal
- A new mole or a changes in an existing mole
- Hoarseness or a cough that does not go away
- A hard time swallowing
- Indigestion or pain after eating that does not go away
- Changes in bowel or bladder habits
- Unusual bleeding or discharge
- Feeling weak or very tired
Smoking can cause cancer and then block your body from fighting it:4
- Poisons in cigarette smoke can weaken the body’s immune system, making it harder to kill cancer cells. When this happens, cancer cells keep growing without being stopped.
- Poisons in tobacco smoke can damage or change a cell"s DNA. DNA is the cell"s "instruction manual" that controls a cell"s normal growth and function. When DNA is damaged, a cell can begin growing out of control and create a cancer tumor.
Doctors have known for years that smoking causes most lung cancer. Nearly 9 out of 10 men who die from lung cancer are smokers. And about 3,000 nonsmokers die each year from lung cancer caused by secondhand smoke.4
Smoking can cause cancer almost anywhere in your body, including the:4
- Mouth, nose, and throat
- Kidneys and ureters
- Bone marrow and blood
Smokeless tobacco also causes cancer, including cancers of the:5
- Mouth and throat
- Within 5 years of quitting, your chance of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, and bladder is cut in half.4
- Ten years after you quit smoking, your risk of dying from lung cancer drops by half.4
If nobody smoked, one of every three cancer deaths in the United States would not happen.4
The treatment for cancer depends on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease (how severe the cancer is and whether it has spread). Doctors may also consider the patient's age and general health. Often, the goal of treatment is to cure the cancer. In other cases, the goal is to control the disease or to reduce symptoms for as long as possible. The treatment plan for a person may change over time.7
Most treatment plans include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Some plans involve hormone therapy (a treatment to keep cancer cells from getting the hormones they need to grow). Other plans involve biological therapy (a treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer).
Some cancers respond best to a single type of treatment. Other cancers may respond best to a combination of treatments.7
For patients who get very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, a stem cell transplant, also known as a bone marrow transplant, may be recommended by their doctor. This is because high-dose therapies destroy both cancer cells and normal blood cells. A stem cell transplant can help the body to make healthy blood cells to replace the ones lost due to the cancer treatment. It’s a complicated procedure with many side effects and risks.8
- National Cancer Institute. What Is Cancer? Defining Cancer [last updated 2013 Feb 8; accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cancer Prevention [last updated 2011 Oct 27; accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- National Cancer Institute. What You Need to Know About Cancer: Symptoms [last updated 2006 Oct 4; accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon General. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: What It Means to You. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer. Smokeless Tobacco and Some Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines [PDF - 3.19MB] [accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Poster: The Benefits of Quitting [accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- National Cancer Institute. What You Need to Know About Cancer: Treatment [last updated 2006 Oct 4; accessed 2013 Feb 10].
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA): Stem Cell (Bone Marrow) Transplant [last updated 2011 Jan 3; accessed 2013 Feb 10].
Terrie smoked for 30 years.
"I’ve been diagnosed with cancer 10 times. I started smoking early. So much of what I’ve gone through — all these cancers — could have been prevented."
Real stories about cancer:
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- CDC/Office on Smoking and Health
4770 Buford Highway
Atlanta, Georgia 30341-3717