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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. Previous HIV Testing Among Adults and Adolescents Newly Diagnosed with HIV Infection — National HIV Surveillance System, 18 Jurisdictions, United States, 2006–2009

CDC
Division of News & Electronic Media
(404) 639-3286

A CDC analysis of HIV testing patterns – among those with available information on previous testing history – found that more than half (59 percent) of people newly diagnosed with HIV report having received a negative HIV test result at some time prior to their diagnosis. The analysis of a subset of data from CDC’s National HIV Surveillance System found that of the 57,476 people newly diagnosed in 18 areas between 2006 and 2009 who also had testing history information available, 24 percent were diagnosed with HIV within one year of testing negative on a previous test, 12 percent were diagnosed within 13–24 months after testing HIV negative, 21 percent were diagnosed more than two years after testing negative, and 41 percent were diagnosed with HIV on their first test. The groups with the highest percentage of persons testing negative within one year preceding HIV diagnosis were those between the ages of 13–29 (33 percent), men who have sex with men (29 percent), and whites (28 percent). The groups with the highest percentage of people with no previous HIV-negative test included heterosexual males (56 percent), injection-drug users (54 percent), blacks (44 percent) and heterosexual females (44 percent). These results underscore the need to enhance efforts to increase annual HIV testing for populations at high risk for HIV infection and increase early detection.

2. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Containing New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase in Two Patients — Rhode Island, March 2012

Rhode Island Hospital
Ellen Slingsby, Senior Media Relations Officer
(401) 444-6421

A rigorous infection control program can limit spread of highly antibiotic resistant bacteria in the hospital setting. Bacteria that are resistant to most, if not all, currently available antibiotics are spreading quickly in our global community.  One type of bacteria referred to as a Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae or New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (NDM), appears to have spread from Asia to North America in a patient hospitalized in both continents.  The bacteria then spread to another patient hospitalized on the same ward.  However, a robust infection control effort curtailed further spread, thus preventing the bacteria from taking a foothold in the US hospital.

3. Update to CDC's "U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010": Revised Recommendations for the Use of Hormonal Contraception Among Women Infected with HIV or at High Risk for HIV Infection

CDC
Division of News & Electronic Media
(404) 639-3286

Prevention of unintended pregnancy among women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or infected with HIV is critically important.  The use of hormonal contraceptives, including combined hormonal contraceptives, progestin-only pills, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), and implants, is safe for women at high risk for HIV infection or infected with HIV.  All women who use contraceptive methods other than condoms should be counseled regarding the use of condoms and the risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.  In particular, due to the inconclusive nature of the evidence for HIV acquisition among women using progestin-only injectables, women at high risk for HIV infection who use DMPA should be strongly advised to also always use condoms and take other HIV preventive measures.

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