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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

 

1. Elementary School–Based Outbreak of Meningococcal Disease — Oklahoma, March 2010

CDC
Division of News & Electronic Media           
(404) 639-3286

Among infectious disease outbreaks, meningococcal disease can prove to be one of the most challenging for public health officials as urgent decisions must be made on a host of issues related to surveillance, contact identification, risk communication, and disease prevention and control. The specter of concern at the community level is raised even higher when the outbreak involves a school-age population. In school-associated outbreaks, local and state public health officials must conduct rapid and ongoing risk assessments to appropriately identify at risk-persons and coordinate decisions related to administration of chemoprophylaxis with school administration and the local medical community. The features of the presented elementary school-associated outbreak in Oklahoma also necessitated meningococcal vaccination as an outbreak control measure. As funding mechanisms for a large vaccination clinic were explored, it was determined that the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program was an appropriate funding source to provide meningococcal vaccine to VFC Program-eligible children. This MMWR report summarizes the timeline and elements of a successful public health response coordinated across federal, state, and local levels to a vaccine-preventable meningococcal disease outbreak in a school setting.

2. HIV, Other STD, and Pregnancy Prevention Education in Public Secondary Schools — 45 States, 2008–2010

CDC
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
404-639-8895

Data indicate that little progress has been made during the past two years in increasing the proportion of middle and high schools that teach a number of essential, age-appropriate HIV, STD, and pregnancy prevention topics as part of a required course. CDC researchers analyzed trends in data from 45 states participating in School Health Profiles in 2008 and 2010, biennial surveys that assess school health practices in the U.S. The surveys measured the percentage of schools in a state that teach specific topics related to HIV, STD, and pregnancy prevention; although the exact recommended topics differ for middle and high schools, they generally include basic information on transmission and diagnosis, communication and decision-making skills, and for high school students, condom use. Overall, the surveys found few signs of progress. For middle schools, 11 states saw a decline in the percentage teaching all 11 essential topics, and no states saw an increase. For high schools, the percentage teaching all eight essential topics remained largely stable, but declined in one state and increased in two; the percentage that taught three condom-related topics decreased in eight states and only increased in three. Percentages varied widely by state. Schools provide an important way to reach youth, and the authors encourage increased efforts to teach age-appropriate HIV, STD, and pregnancy prevention topics in schools.

3. Influenza Outbreaks at Two Correctional Facilities — Maine, March 2011

Maine Department of Health and Human Services
State Epidemiologist
207-287-5138

Correctional facilities face many challenges in dealing with infectious disease outbreaks including influenza. Collaboration between public health and correctional facilities is necessary to quickly identify and mitigate communicable disease outbreaks including influenza in these high-risk settings. This collaboration should be established well before any outbreak occurs. Vaccination of inmates and staff members is a critical prevention measure, and vaccine should be provided in correctional settings, along with accessible documentation regarding the vaccination status of inmates and staff members. Planning before an event happens, and collaboration with public health facilities is essential in helping detect and control infectious diseases in these settings.

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