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MMWR – Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. Cancer Survivors — United States, 2007

CDC Division of News and Electronic Media
(404) 639-3286

There were 11.7 million cancer survivors in the United States in 2007—an increase from 9.8 million in 2001. In 1971, there were 3 million cancer survivors. In the current study, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers were the most common types of cancer diagnosed among survivors, accounting for 51 percent of diagnoses. Among cancer survivors, almost 7 million were aged 65 years or older, and approximately 4.7 million were diagnosed 10 or more years earlier. The number and overall percentage of people in the U.S. population living with cancer continues to grow with the majority of cancer survivors aged 65 years and older. Additionally, many people with cancer live a long time after diagnosis. Therefore, it is important that medical and public health professionals understand the long-term and late effects of cancer and its treatment, and plan for future services to address the physical, psychosocial and economic needs of this large, growing population.

2. Premastication of Food by Caregivers of HIV-Exposed Children — Nine U.S. Sites, 2009–2010

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
News Media Team
(404) 639-8895

A study of caregivers of children receiving care at nine pediatric HIV clinics (six states and San Juan, PR and Washington D.C.) found that 31 percent of the caregivers interviewed said they or someone else premasticated food for the children in their care. The study also found that premastication—pre-chewing food or medicine and feeding it to a child—decreased with caregiver age (44 percent among those younger than 20 years old vs. 13 percent among those 40 and older), and was more prevalent among African-American caregivers than non-African-American caregivers (37 percent vs. 20 percent). While this study did not determine the HIV status of the caregiver or the children, a previous report of three pediatric HIV infection case studies suggests that HIV may be transmitted through premastication by an HIV-infected caregiver if infected blood is present in the saliva. Though HIV infection caused by blood in premasticated food appears to be rare, CDC recommends that HIV-infected caregivers not premasticate food for children. Additionally, public health officials and providers should educate HIV-infected caregivers about the risk of transmission, and advise against the practice.

3. Japanese Encephalitis in Two Children — United States, 2010

CDC Division of News and Electronic Media
(404) 639-3286

This report describes two cases of Japanese encephalitis that were reported to CDC in 2010. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease that occurs in Asia and the western Pacific region. Cases among persons who have traveled or lived overseas are infrequently diagnosed in the United States. Although uncommon in travelers, the disease can be serious. Health care providers should advise travelers to JE-endemic countries of the risk of JE virus infection and the importance of personal protective measures to prevent mosquito bites. In addition, JE vaccine should be considered for some travelers who will be in a high-risk setting. JE should be considered in the differential diagnosis in a patient with an acute neurological infection recently returned from a JE-endemic country.

 

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