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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. Malaria Acquired in Haiti — 2010

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Division of Media Relations           
(404) 639-3286

Individuals travelling to Haiti should take medications to prevent malaria.  Prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria is critical. Recommendations for antimalarials for treatment and prevention are based on information on parasite drug susceptibility for that specific geographic setting.  The earthquake that struck Haiti on January 12, 2010 resulted in more than 200,000 deaths and millions left homeless.   Malaria is endemic throughout Haiti and both the displaced individuals now living out of doors or in temporary shelters and the thousands of emergency responders in Haiti are at substantial risk for the disease.  Between January 12 and February 25, 2010, CDC received reports of 11 laboratory-confirmed cases of malaria acquired in Haiti post-earthquake including seven cases in U.S. emergency responders, three cases in Haitian residents, and a case in a U.S. traveler. For individuals travelling to Haiti there are effective medications for both the prevention and treatment of malaria.  Prompt diagnosis and treatment of malaria as well as chemoprophylaxis when appropriate are critical.

2. Identifying Infants with Hearing Loss — United States, 1999–2007

CDC
Division of Media Relations           
(404) 639-3286

Data reported by states and territories has shown notable progress in screening infants for hearing loss but challenges remain in ensuring infants receive recommended follow-up diagnostic and early intervention services. Congenital hearing loss affects two to three infants per 1,000 live births and when left undetected it can result in delays in children’s speech and language development. All states and U.S. territories have now established Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs, which help ensure that infants are screened for hearing loss and receive recommended follow-up diagnostic and early intervention services. The data in this report show that notable progress has been made, especially in screening infants for hearing loss. However, the data also show that a number of infants are not receiving recommended follow-up diagnostic and intervention services. This is why efforts are currently underway to enhance EHDI surveillance systems to capture more complete data and increase education and outreach efforts to families and providers about the importance of receiving recommended follow-up services,

3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Activity — United States, July 2008–December 2009

CDC
Division of Media Relations           
(404) 639-3286

Knowledge of the RSV season can be used by clinicians and public health officials to determine when to consider RSV as a cause of acute respiratory illnesses and when to provide RSV immunoprophylaxis to children at high risk for serious disease. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children aged <1 year worldwide. Each year in the United States, an estimated 75,000–125,000 infants are hospitalized with RSV. Among adults aged >65 years, an estimated 177,000 hospitalizations and 14,000 deaths a year might be attributed to RSV infections. The national 2008–09 RSV season onset occurred the week ending November 1, 2008, and continued for 20 weeks until the week ending March 21, 2009.  Knowledge of the RSV season can be used by clinicians and public health officials to determine when to consider RSV as a cause of acute respiratory illnesses and when to provide RSV immunoprophylaxis to children at high risk for serious disease.

4. Severe Isoniazid-Associated Liver Injuries Among Persons Being Treated for Latent Tuberculosis Infection – United States, 2004-2008

CDC
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
(404) 639-8895

Findings from a tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system highlight the importance of following established recommendations for treating and monitoring patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to detect rare, but severe, drug-related side effects. CDC recommends treating certain patients with LTBI with isoniazid (INH), which when taken appropriately can prevent a patient from progressing to active TB disease. Although it is estimated that between 290,000 and 433,000 people are treated with INH each year, some physicians remain reluctant to prescribe the treatment due to concerns about its toxicity. To characterize the clinical features of affected patients, CDC initiated a national monitoring project and collected data from state health departments from 2004-2008. Reporting found 17 cases of severe isoniazid-associated liver damage -- including two among children -- with five undergoing liver transplants and five dying. Authors point to the need for careful clinical monitoring of patients using INH to detect adverse effects and continue to recommend INH as an effective therapy for preventing active TB disease until an equally effective, better tolerated regimen is developed.


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Historical Document: March 4, 2010
  • Content source: Office of the Associate Director for Communication
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