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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

1. (Box) National Back HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – February 7, 2010

Press Contact:
CDC
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
(404) 639-8895

No summary available.

2. Racial/Ethnic Disparities Among Infants with Diagnosed Perinatal HIV Infection – 34 States, 2004-2007

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CDC
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
(404) 639-8895

Despite substantial declines in the number of HIV-infected infants in the United States, racial/ethnic minorities, especially African Americans, continue to be most significantly impacted by perinatal transmission. For this analysis, researchers analyzed data on HIV diagnoses among children from 2004 to 2007 in 34 states with longstanding, name-based HIV reporting. The average annual rate of diagnosis of perinatal HIV infection was 2.7 per every 100,000 infants. Even though declines were observed in the annual rate of diagnosis of perinatal HIV infection for both black and Hispanic children, the rate among black children still was approximately 23 times higher than the rate among their white counterparts (12.3/100,000 vs. 0.5) and the rate among Hispanic children was four times higher (2.0) than the rate among their white counterparts. Although black and Hispanic children only accounted for 37 percent of the population under the age of one, these groups represented 85 percent of all perinatal HIV diagnoses (compared to 81 percent of females and 64 percent of males over the age of 13 with HIV diagnoses). Because the risk of transmission from an HIV-infected mother to her child can be greatly reduced with effective interventions, the authors emphasize it is critical all women – especially African Americans and Latinas – have access to HIV prevention, reproductive health care, prenatal care and, if necessary, HIV treatment.

3. Jimsonweed Poisoning Associated with a Homemade Potato Stew – Maryland, 2008

Press Contact: Maryland Department of Health & Mental Hygiene
Office of Communications
(410) 767-6490

Health-care providers and public health officials should be aware of the signs of anticholinergic toxicity, and should consider jimsonweed poisoning as a cause of any food-related outbreak of anticholinergic toxicity; consultation with horticulturalists, poison control centers, and specialized laboratories can facilitate the timely diagnosis of affected patients. To avoid future incidents, people should not consume unknown plants. In July 2008, six adult family members were admitted to a hospital in Maryland with signs and symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity that included hallucinations, confusion, dilated pupils, and rapid heart rate after sharing a meal of homemade stew. Subsequent investigation by the Montgomery County Department of Health and Human Services (MCDHHS) and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (MDHMH) determined that the stew contained jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). Health-care providers and public health officials should be aware of the signs and symptoms of anticholinergic toxicity, and should consider jimsonweed poisoning as a cause of food-related outbreaks of anticholinergic toxicity. Consultation by healthcare providers and public health officials with horticulturalists, poison control centers, and specialized laboratories might be necessary to investigate cases and outbreaks. To avoid future incidents, people should not consume unknown plants.

4. Preemptive State Smoke-Free Laws in Government Work Sites, Private Work Sites and Restaurants – United States, 2005-2009

Press Contact:
CDC
Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

State legislation that preempts local smoking restrictions blocks community efforts to protect residents from the health effects of secondhand smoke. When states rescind preemptive legislation, local governments can tailor laws to offer stronger protection from secondhand smoke exposure and more effectively promote healthy communities. A new CDC report found that from December 2004 to December 2009, the number of states preempting local smoking restrictions decreased sharply from 19 to 12. Preemptive legislation prevents communities from enacting smoke-free laws that are more stringent than state laws, impeding local efforts to protect residents from secondhand smoke exposure. The report examined state laws that block local smoking restrictions in one or more of three settings: government worksites, private worksites, and restaurants. The report’s findings indicate that significant progress has been made toward achieving the 2010 goal of reducing the number of preemptive state smoke-free laws to zero. This can result in more protection from secondhand smoke exposure for local residents.

 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Historical Document: February 4, 2010
  • Content source: Office of Communication
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