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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Injecting-Drug Users – 23 Cities, United States, May 2005-February 2006

CDC
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention           
(404) 639-8895

Despite more than a decade of declines in new HIV infections among injection drug users (IDU) in the U.S., risk behaviors among this group remain high.  CDC researchers analyzed data on risk behaviors, HIV testing, and use of prevention services in the preceding 12 months among 10,301 IDU of HIV-negative or unknown status collected through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System from May 2005 through February 2006.  Roughly one-third of participants reported sharing syringes (31.8 percent) or other injection equipment (33.4 percent).  Most participants had had vaginal sex (81.7 percent), with many having had unprotected vaginal sex (62.6 percent) or multiple partners (47.2 percent).  This indicates that many IDU are also at risk for acquiring HIV through sexual behavior.  Encouragingly, nearly three-quarters (71.5 percent) had been tested for HIV in the past year, but additional testing is critical given the high levels of risk behavior in this population.  Only one-quarter (27.4 percent) of IDU had participated in individual or group behavioral interventions.  More blacks and Hispanics had been tested and participated in behavioral interventions; this is particularly important given the disproportionate impact that HIV has on these populations.  These data provide a baseline for measuring risk behaviors and access to prevention services among IDU, as well as monitor for changes over time, and can help to guide prevention programs for at-risk IDU.

Preliminary FoodNet Data on the Incidence of Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food – 10 States, 2008

CDC
Division of Media Relations           
(404) 639-3286

In 2008, the estimated incidence of bacterial and parasitic foodborne infections did not change significantly when compared with the previous 3 years.  The lack of recent progress points to gaps in the current food safety system and the need to develop and evaluate food safety practices as food moves from the farm to the table.  Foodborne diseases remain an important public health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program collects data from 10 U.S. states on diseases caused by enteric pathogens transmitted commonly through food. FoodNet is an active, population-based surveillance system for these laboratory-confirmed infections.  This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2008 and trends since 1996. In 2008, the estimated incidence of infections caused by Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, and Yersinia did not change significantly when compared with the previous 3 years.

Cholera Outbreak – Southern Sudan, 2007

CDC
Division of Media Relations           
(404) 639-3286

It is important to quickly implement cholera prevention strategies such as safe food handling techniques, adequate sanitation and clean water in countries that are recovering from war. This report summarizes one of the few documented investigations of cholera in Juba Town, the unofficial capital of Southern Sudan after the civil war between the North and South ended in 2005. There were 3,157 persons diagnosed with suspected cholera during January–June 2007, with 74 deaths. An environmental investigation revealed poor hygiene and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for residents to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and good hygiene to prevent the spread of cholera.

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