Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
MMWR News Synopsis for November 20, 2008
- Implementation of Newborn Hepatitis B Vaccination – Worldwide, 2006
- Potential Implications of Continued Shortage of Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Conjugate Vaccines – United States, 2008
- Rotavirus Surveillance – Worldwide, 2001-2008
There will be no MMWR telebriefing scheduled for:
November 20, 2008
PRESS CONTACT: Office on Smoking and Health
An analysis of data collected by the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children′s Fund (UNICEF) indicates low worldwide coverage of hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of infants at birth. Only 27 percent of infants born worldwide and 36 percent of infants born in countries with high rates of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection received HepB vaccination within 24 hours of birth. WHO recommends HepB vaccination of newborns in countries with high rates of chronic hepatitis B, since vaccination within 24 hours of birth is up to 95 percent effective in preventing mother-to-child HBV transmission. Globally, hepatitis B is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer and is estimated to cause 620,000 deaths each year. Infants who become HBV-infected have a 90 percent risk of developing chronic infection and a 25 percent risk of dying from the disease. Low worldwide coverage of the HepB vaccine at birth represents significant missed opportunities. More complete implementation of routine newborn HepB vaccination globally would help prevent the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by perinatally-acquired HBV infection.
Potential Implications of Continued Shortage of Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Conjugate Vaccines – United States, 2008
PRESS CONTACT: CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention
Health departments, state and hospital laboratories, and physicians should increase efforts for timely serotyping and reporting of all cases of invasive H. influenzae disease in children aged <5 years. In October 2008 Merck & Co., Inc. announced that their supply outage of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines (PedvaxHIB® and Comvax®) would continue until mid-2009. As this ongoing outage has disrupted the United States supply of Hib vaccines, national surveillance for invasive Hib disease in children <5 years of age is of particular importance. Unfortunately, national Hib surveillance is hampered by incomplete serotype reporting. For children aged <5 years, serotype are missing for nearly 40 percent of H. influenzae cases reported to CDC. The extended vaccine shortage heightens the need for timely reporting and investigation of all H. influenzae cases, and accurate serotyping of all invasive H. influenzae isolates in children aged <5 years.
PRESS CONTACT: CDC
Division of Media Relations
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide, accounting for approximately 40 percent of hospitalizations for this disease. The large health burden underscores the potential health benefits of new vaccines against rotavirus. The availability and use of rotavirus vaccines globally can have a substantial impact in reducing hospitalizations and the estimated >500,000 annual deaths from rotavirus diarrhea, thereby contributing to the achievement of the United Nations′ Millennium Development Goals for reduction of childhood mortality. Approximately 40 percent of diarrhea hospitalizations among children aged <5 years worldwide were attributed to rotavirus infection according to surveillance conducted during 2001-2008 at sentinel hospitals in 35 countries in each of the 6 regions of the World Health Organization. This percentage is greater than that previously reported. The large health burden of rotavirus diarrhea underscores the need for effective vaccines for the control of this disease, as part of a comprehensive approach for prevention and control of diarrhea.
- Historical Document: November 20, 2008
- Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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