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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

State-Specific Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Adults Aged ≥ 18 Years – United States, 2006-07 Influenza Season

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Based on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, in the 2006-07 season, influenza vaccination coverage among persons aged 18-49 years with high-risk conditions, persons aged 50-64 years, and persons aged ≥65 years were 35.1 percent, 42.0 percent, and 72.1 percent, respectively, which indicated that vaccination rates in the 2006–07 season increased compared with the 2005-06 season, but coverage was not higher than during the pre-vaccine shortage 2003-2004 season. Influenza epidemics occur seasonally and result in substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States. Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for anyone who wants it for their own protection as well as for prevention of transmission to others, but among adults especially for all persons aged ≥50 years and persons 18-49 years of age with high-risk conditions. Influenza vaccination levels for the 2006-07 season and the magnitude of change from the previous season varied among regions, state/U.S. territories, high-risk and racial/ethnic groups. Further efforts are needed to increase influenza vaccination coverage among adult populations in the United States.

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 6-23 Months – United States, September-December, 2006-07 Influenza Season

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During September through December of the 2006-07 influenza season only 31.8 percent of children aged 6-23 months received at least one dose of influenza vaccine and only 21.3 percent were fully vaccinated against influenza, i.e. approximately, only 1 in 5 children aged 6-23 months in the U.S. were fully vaccinated against influenza. Influenza vaccination coverage remains low for children aged 6-23 months in the United Stated according to the most recent data from the National Immunization Survey (NIS). The NIS is a random-digit–dialed telephone survey of households with children who are aged 19–35 months followed by a mail survey of all of the children′s vaccination providers to obtain vaccination data. The data showed that during the 2006-07 influenza season, the third season for which influenza vaccination was recommended for this age group, only 31.8 percent received 1 or more doses of influenza vaccine, and 21.3 percent were fully vaccinated. The low influenza vaccination coverage described in the report underscores a need to identify and implement strategies to increase influenza vaccination coverage among young children.

Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Children Aged 6-59 Months – Six Immunization Information System Sentinel Sites, United States, 2007-08 Influenza Season

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The Immunization Information System Sentinel Site Project showed that 22 percent of children aged 6-23 months and 17 percent of children aged 24-59 months were fully vaccinated against influenza in the 2007-08 influenza season. These estimates are similar to previous years and indicate no substantial increase in influenza vaccination coverage. These results indicate that influenza vaccination coverage among children remains low and highlight the need to identify barriers to influenza vaccination and to develop interventions to promote vaccination of children aged 6–59 months. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. The Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommends annual vaccination with influenza vaccine for all children aged 6–59 months. Among children aged 24–59 months, an average of 16.5 percent were fully vaccinated. These results indicate that influenza vaccination coverage among children remains low and highlight the need to identify barriers to influenza vaccination and to develop interventions to promote vaccination of children aged 6–59 months.

Update: Influenza Activity – United States and Worldwide, May 18-September 19, 2008

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Annual influenza vaccination remains the best method for preventing influenza and its potentially severe complications. The neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, remain the drugs of choice for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infection. Antiviral resistance among influenza viruses is being closely monitored. Annual influenza vaccination remains the best method for preventing influenza infection and its potentially severe complications. The virus strains contained in the 2008-09 influenza vaccine are well matched to influenza viruses that have circulated during the summer months of 2008. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recently expanded its recommendations for influenza vaccination to include all children from six months through 18 years of age. In addition, influenza vaccination is recommended for persons who are at increased risk for influenza complications, adults aged ≥50 years, and those who are immunosuppressed or have other chronic medical conditions that might predispose them to influenza-related complications, reside in nursing homes or chronic care facilities, or who will be pregnant during the influenza season. Household and other close contacts of those who are at higher risk for influenza infection also should be vaccinated. During the 2007-2008 influenza season, resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitor Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) was observed. Currently, there are no changes in the recommendations for use of neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza infections. Enhanced surveillance for oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses is ongoing at CDC.

Progress Toward Measles Eradication – Japan, 1999-2008

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In response to the 2007 outbreak and to achieve the measles elimination goal by 2012 agreed on by Member States of the WHO Western Pacific Region the Japanese government approved a 5-year National Measles Elimination Plan in December 2007. With implementation of the national Measles Elimination Plan, Japan is expected to make progress toward achieving the WPR measles elimination goal. In 2005, the Regional Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) set a target date of 2012 for measles elimination in all member states. During 2007–2008, Japan experienced a large measles outbreak, which resulted in exportation of measles cases from Japan into countries where measles elimination had been achieved. In response to the 2007 outbreak and to achieve the measles elimination goal agreed on by Member States of the WHO Western Pacific Region the Japanese government approved a 5-year National Measles Elimination Plan in December 2007. This report describes the epidemiology of measles in Japan during 1999–2008 and the National Measles Elimination Plan that includes recommendations for immunization strategies, case-based measles surveillance, and monitoring to ensure elimination of measles by 2012.

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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES

  • Page last reviewed: September 25, 2008
  • Page last updated: September 25, 2008
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