Female Reproductive System – Reproductive Health

What You Should Know About the Female Reproductive System

By knowing how the female reproductive system works, you can better protect yourself and your family against reproductive hazards. Reproductive hazards in the workplace can act on the tissues, eggs, and hormones that make up the  female reproductive system.

The female reproductive tissues

The main reproductive tissues in women are the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes. These tissues are primarily controlled by hormones produced by the brain, the pituitary gland and the ovaries. These hormones also control:

  • Menstrual cycles
  • Pregnancy
  • Breast milk production

Why hormones are important

Female sex hormones called estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovaries. These hormones are responsible for sexual development and for preparing the uterine wall every month to hold and nourish a fertilized egg during pregnancy. These hormones contribute to the health of the heart, bones, liver, brain and other tissues. A reproductive hazard that alters your estrogen and progesterone production can also reduce your general health.

About the menstrual cycle

  • As girls go through puberty, they begin to have periods (menstruation) and menstrual cycles.
  • Each menstrual cycle begins with a few days of menstrual flow (period). When each new cycle begins, a few new eggs begin to grow in the ovaries.
  • After about 2 to 3 weeks, one egg – occasionally more – matures to be released from the ovary (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where it might be fertilized by one of the sperm that may surround it.
  • If the egg is not fertilized, it will die and leave the body about 2 weeks later in the  menstrual flow. Then the process begins again with a new menstrual cycle, a new period, and new  eggs.
  • Women are born with all of the eggs they will ever have. Eggs that are damaged or destroyed cannot be replaced.

What happens when an egg is fertilized

  • If an egg is fertilized, theprocess of reproduction continues. The fertilized egg travels for about a week down the fallopian tube to the uterus, where it attaches to the uterine wall.
  • A specialized tissue called the placenta forms between the uterus and the newly developing baby. The placenta transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to her baby.
  • During the first 3 months of pregnancy (first trimester), the baby’s major organs are formed.
  • During the remainder of the pregnancy, these organs mature, and the baby grows rapidly.


Page last reviewed: February 2, 2022, 10:08 am