Collecting and Using Industry and Occupation Data
More about Classification Systems
Census Industry and Occupation Codes
Census industry and occupation codes were developed to translate text responses into standard numeric values or codes for surveys sponsored by the Census Bureau, such as the American Community Survey and the Current Population Survey.
Within the Census classification system, industry is coded first, then occupation. This is because the Census industry code sometimes limits which occupation codes are valid or may be included in an industry. For example, the Census occupation code for a laborer within the agriculture industry (coded as 6050) is different than the Census occupation code for a laborer within the construction industry (which is coded as 6260).
- Census industry codes are derived from the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and generally correspond to NAICS 3- or 4-digit codes. NAICS codes are more detailed than Census industry codes.
- Census occupation codes are derived from the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), and generally correspond to SOC 2- to 6-digit codes. SOC codes are more detailed than Census occupation codes.
- For both industry and occupation, the Census codes are less detailed than the NAICS or SOC codes to protect individual respondents of Census surveys or health surveys.
||Construction (Census industry code 0770)|
||Bus Driver (Census occupation code 9120)|
The Alphabetical Indexes of Industries and Occupationsexternal icon are comprehensive lists of specific industry and occupation titles used to describe Census industry and occupation codes. Because multiple industry and occupation titles map to a single Census industry and occupation code, these indexes contain over 21,000 industry and 31,000 occupation titles in alphabetical order with corresponding numeric codes. The indexes can help you understand what types of specific industries and occupations fall within each code. The indexes are continuously updated with new industry and occupation titles by reviewing participant responses from the most recent Census and other public health surveys.
The following are Census coding schemes NIOSH has used over the last twenty years. The census coding scheme includes two classification systems: (1) Census industry codes and the corresponding NAICS codes or (2) Census occupation codes and the corresponding SOC codes. These codes are also included in output generated by the NIOSH Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System (NIOCCS).
Crosswalk coding is the mapping of a code from one industry and occupation classification system to another or to a different code within the same industry and occupation classification system for a different year. NAICS and SOC are regularly revised. Census codes are revised following NAICS and SOC revisions.
- Census Industry Crosswalk 2007 to 2012excel icon
- Census 2002 Industry to NAICS Industryexcel icon
- Census 2002 Occupation to SOC Occupationexcel icon
- Census Industry Crosswalks 1990, 2000, 2002, 2007excel icon
- Census Occupation Crosswalk 2002 to 2010excel icon
- Census Occupation Crosswalk 2000 to 2002excel icon
- Census Occupation Crosswalk 1990 to 2000excel icon
- NAICS Revision Crosswalksexternal icon
- Census Code Lists & Crosswalks Methodologyexternal icon
Since the 1980s the NCHS and NIOSH have collaborated on coding death certificates and in doing so, agreed to:
- identify non-census codes for those whose longest industry and occupation was military service since death certificates do not include as much detail as the Census.
- include certain codes for people who were not in the civilian workforce, such as housewives, volunteers, students, and those without sufficient information.
These NIOSH/NCHS codes continue to be assigned in NIOCCS. They are not Census codes and would not be found in Census documentation. These have changed over the years when Census assigned actual industries or occupations for codes we used previously. In 2002, the NIOSH/NCHS codes changed to 4-character codes when Census changed to 4-character industry and occupation codes.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
NAICS codes are updated every 5 years by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to include industry and economic changes. A NAICS code may be up to 6-digits. Each digit in the code is part of a series of progressively narrower industry categories, and more digits in the code signifies greater classification detail.
In a NAICS code, the first two digits define the 20 broad sector groupings:
|11||Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting|
|21||Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction|
|48-49||Transportation and Warehousing|
|52||Finance and Insurance|
|53||Real Estate and Rental and Leasing|
|54||Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services|
|55||Management of Companies and Enterprises|
|56||Administrative Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services|
|62||Health Care and Social Assistance|
|71||Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation|
|72||Accommodation and Food Services|
|81||Other Services (except Public Administration)|
Within each of the sectors, the groupings are broken down farther.
- The first 2-digits represent the sector.
- The first 3-digits represent the sub sectors within a sector.
- The first 4-digits represent the industry groupings with a subsector.
- The 5-digit code is the NAICS code for each industry grouping.
- The 6-digit code is the national industry.
For example, 331221 is the 6-digit NAICS code for the industry: Rolled Steel Shape Manufacturing
33 Sector code for Manufacturing
331 Subsector code for Primary Metal Manufacturing
3312 Industry grouping code for Steel Product Manufacturing from Purchased Steel
33121 National industry code for Iron and Steel Pipe and Tube Manufacturing from Purchased Steel
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
SOC codes are updated by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and may be up to 6-digits. The occupations in SOC do not relate to any industry code. SOC codes are updated every 5 years.
The first two digits define the 23 major groupings.
|13-0000||Business and Financial Operations|
|15-0000||Computer and Mathematical|
|17-0000||Architecture and Engineering|
|19-0000||Life, Physical, and Social Science|
|21-0000||Community and Social Service|
|25-0000||Education, Training, and Library|
|27-0000||Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media|
|29-0000||Healthcare Practitioners and Technical|
|35-0000||Food Preparation and Serving Related|
|37-0000||Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance|
|39-0000||Personal Care and Service|
|41-0000||Sales and Related|
|43-0000||Office and Administrative Support|
|45-0000||Farming, Fishing, and Forestry|
|47-0000||Construction and Extraction|
|49-0000||Installation, Maintenance, and Repair|
|53-0000||Transportation and Material Moving|
Each of the major groups are broken down further:
- Major group: first 2-digits
- Minor group: 3rd digit
- Broad occupations: 4th and 5th digits
- Detailed occupations: 6th digit
For example, 47-2131 is the SOC code for Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall
- 47-2131 47 is the major group code for Construction and Extraction
- 47-2131 47-2 is the minor group code for Construction Trade Workers
- 47-2131 47-213 is the broad category code for Insulation Workers
- 47-2131 47-2131 is the detailed occupation code for Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall