Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. Farmers are at very high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries; and farming is one of the few industries in which family members (who often share the work and live on the premises) are also at risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries.
In 1990, NIOSH developed an extensive agricultural safety and health program to address the high risks of injuries and illnesses experienced by workers and families in agriculture. NIOSH supports extramural research and prevention programs at university centers in 10 states. These programs conduct research on injuries associated with agriculture, as well as pesticide exposure, pulmonary disease, musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and stress.
Who’s at Risk?
- Approximately 2.1 million full-time workers were employed in production agriculture in the US in 2020.
- Approximately 1.4 to 2.1 million hired crop workers are employed annually on crop farms in the US.
- An estimated 893,000 youth under 20 years of age resided on farms in 2014, with about 454,000 youth performing farm work. In addition to the youth who live on farms, an estimated 266,000 youth were hired to work on US farms in 2014.
- In 2020, 368 farmers and farm workers died from a work-related injury, resulting in a fatality rate of 18.0 deaths per 100,000 workers. Transportation incidents, which include tractor overturns were the leading cause of death for these farmers and farm workers.
- The most effective way to prevent tractor overturn deaths is the use of a Roll-Over Protective Structure (ROPS) with a seatbelt. In 2014, 62% of tractors used on farms in the US were equipped with ROPS. If ROPS were placed on all tractors used on US farms manufactured since the mid-1960’s, the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors could be increased to over 80%.
- In 2020, there were 11,880 injuries in agricultural production that required days away from work.
- From 2014-2015, 42% of all hired crop worker injuries were classified as a sprain or strain.
- In 2014, an estimated 12,000 youth were injured on farms; 4,000 of these injuries were due to farm work.
A national occupational safety and health agenda for the agricultural production industry has been developed as part of the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) process. Further information on agriculture production safety and health is also available as part of the NORA Agricultural, Forestry, and Fishing Sector activities.
- Cost-effective Rollover Protective Structures (CROPS)
- Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture (OISPA) Survey
- Minority Farm Operator Occupational Injury Surveillance of Production Agriculture (M-OISPA) Survey
- Farm Safety Survey (FSS)
- National Agricultural Workers Survey (NAWS)
- Other Links of Interest
- Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention Initiative