Appendix C - Supplementary Exposure Limits
Exposure to acetaldehyde has produced nasal tumors in rats and laryngeal tumors in hamsters, and exposure to malonaldehyde has produced thyroid gland and pancreatic islet cell tumors in rats. NIOSH therefore recommends that acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde be considered potential occupational carcinogens in conformance with the OSHA carcinogen policy.
Testing has not been completed to determine the carcinogenicity of acrolein, butyraldehyde (CAS#: 123-72-8), crotonaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal (CAS#: 107-22-2), paraformaldehyde (CAS#: 30525-89-4), propiolaldehyde (CAS#: 624-67-9), propionaldehyde (CAS#: 123-38-6), and n-valeraldehyde, nine related low-molecular-weight-aldehydes.
However, the limited studies to date indicate that these substances have chemical reactivity and mutagenicity similar to acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde. Therefore, NIOSH recommends that careful consideration should be given to reducing exposures to these nine related aldehydes.
Further information can be found in the “NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 55: Carcinogenicity of Acetaldehyde and Malonaldehyde, and Mutagenicity of Related Low-Molecular-Weight Aldehydes” [DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 91-112.]
NIOSH considers asbestos to be a potential occupational carcinogen and recommends that exposures be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration. For asbestos fibers >5 micrometers in length, NIOSH recommends a REL of 100,000 fibers per cubic meter of air (100,000 fibers/m3), which is equal to 0.1 fiber per cubic centimeter of air (0.1 fiber/cm3), as determined by a 400-liter air sample collected over 100 minutes in accordance with NIOSH Analytical Method #7400. Airborne asbestos fibers are defined as those particles having (1) an aspect ratio of 3 to 1 or greater and (2) the mineralogic characteristics (that is, the crystal structure and elemental composition) of the asbestos minerals and their nonasbestiform analogs. The asbestos minerals are defined as chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite (cummingtonite-grunerite), anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite. In addition, airborne cleavage fragments from the nonasbestiform habits of the serpentine minerals antigorite and lizardite, and the amphibole minerals contained in the series cummingtonite-grunerite, tremolite-ferroactinolite, and glaucophane-riebeckite should also be counted as fibers provided they meet the criteria for a fiber when viewed microscopically.
As found in 29 CFR 1910.1001, the OSHA PEL for asbestos fibers (i.e., actinolite asbestos, amosite, anthophyllite asbestos, chrysotile, crocidolite, and tremolite asbestos) is an 8-hour TWA airborne concentration of 0.1 fiber (longer than 5 micrometers and having a length-to-diameter ratio of at least 3 to 1) per cubic centimeter of air (0.1 fiber/cm3), as determined by the membrane filter method at approximately 400X magnification with phase contrast illumination. No worker should be exposed in excess of 1 fiber/cm3 (excursion limit)as averaged over a sampling period of 30 minutes.
The recommendations provided below are from Health Effects of Occupational Exposure to Asphalt.
Occupational exposure to asphalt fumes shall be controlled so that employees are not exposed to the airborne particulates at a concentration greater than 5 mg/m3, determined during any 15-minute period.
Data regarding the potential carcinogenicity of paving asphalt fumes in humans are limited, and no animal studies have examined the carcinogenic potential of either field- or laboratory-generated samples of paving asphalt fume condensates. NIOSH concludes that the collective data currently available from studies on paving asphalt provide insufficient evidence for an association between lung cancer and exposure to asphalt during paving.
The results from epidemiologic studies indicate that roofers are at an increased risk of lung cancer, but it is uncertain whether this increase can be attributed to asphalt and/or to other exposures such as coal tar or asbestos. Data from experimental studies in animals and cultured mammalian cells indicate that laboratory-generated roofing asphalt fume condensates are genotoxic and cause skin tumors in mice when applied dermally. Furthermore, a known carcinogen (Benzo(a)pyrene) was detected in field-generated roofing fumes. The collective health and exposure data provide sufficient evidence for NIOSH to conclude that roofing asphalt fumes are a potential occupational carcinogen.
The available data indicate that although not all asphalt-based paint formulations may exert genotoxicity, some are genotoxic and carcinogenic in animals. No published data examine the carcinogenic potential of asphalt-based paints in humans, but NIOSH concludes that asphalt-based paints are potential occupational carcinogens.
Benzidine-, o-Tolidine, and o-Dianisidine-based Dyes
In December 1980, OSHA and NIOSH jointly published the Health Hazard Alert: Benzidine-, o-Tolidine-, and o-Dianisidine-based Dyes.
In this Alert, OSHA and NIOSH concluded that benzidine and benzidine-based dyes were potential occupational carcinogens and recommended that worker exposure be reduced to the lowest feasible level.
OSHA and NIOSH further concluded that o-tolidine and o-dianisidine (and dyes based on them) may present a cancer risk to workers and should be handled with caution and exposure minimized.
NIOSH considers “Carbon Black” to be the material consisting of more than 80% elemental carbon, in the form of near-spherical colloidal particles and coalesced particle aggregates of colloidal size, that is obtained by the partial combustion or thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons. The NIOSH REL (10-hour TWA) for carbon black is 3.5 mg/m3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particulate polycyclic organic material (PPOM), and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) are terms frequently used to describe various petroleum-based substances that NIOSH considers to be potential occupational carcinogens. Since some of these aromatic hydrocarbons may be formed during the manufacture of carbon black (and become adsorbed on the carbon black), the NIOSH REL (10-hour TWA) for carbon black in the presence of PAHs is 0.1 mg PAHs/m3 (measured as the cyclohexane-extractable fraction). The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for carbon black is 3.5 mg/m3.
NIOSH considers ethylene dichloride; hexachloroethane; 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; and 1,1,2-trichloroethane; to be potential occupational carcinogens.
Additionally, NIOSH recommends that the other five chloroethane compounds:
- Ethyl chloride
- Methyl chloroform
be treated in the workplace with caution because of their structural similarity to the four chloroethanes shown to be carcinogenic in animals.
Chromic Acid and Chromates (as CrO3), Chromium(II) and Chromium(III) Compounds (as Cr), and Chromium Metal (as Cr)
The NIOSH REL (8-hour TWA) is 0.0002 mg Cr(VI)/m3 for all hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds. NIOSH considers all Cr(VI) compounds (including chromic acid, tert-butyl chromate, zinc chromate, and chromyl chloride) to be potential occupational carcinogens.
The NIOSH REL (8-hour TWA) is 0.5 mg Cr/m3 for chromium metal and chromium(II) and chromium(III) compounds.
The OSHA PEL is 0.005 mg CrO3/m3 (8-hour TWA) for chromic acid and chromates (including tert-butyl chromate with a “skin” designation and zinc chromate); 0.5 mg Cr/m3 (8-hour TWA) for chromium(II) and chromium(III) compounds; and 1 mg Cr/m3 (8-hour TWA) for chromium metal and insoluble salts.
Coal Dust and Coal Mine Dust
The NIOSH REL (10-hour TWA) for respirable coal mine dust is 1 mg/m3, measured using a coal mine personal sampler unit (CPSU) as defined in 30 CFR 74.2. The REL is equivalent to 0.9 mg/m3 measured according to the ISO/CEN/ACGIH (International Standards Organization/ Comité Européen de Normalisation/American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) definition of respirable dust. The REL applies to respirable coal mine dust and respirable coal dust in occupations other than mining. NIOSH recommends a separate REL for crystalline silica. See NIOSH publication 95-106 (Criteria for a Recommended Standard – Occupational Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust) for more detailed information.
Coal Tar Pitch Volatiles
NIOSH considers coal tar products (i.e., coal tar, coal tar pitch, or creosote) to be potential occupational carcinogens; the NIOSH REL (10-hour TWA) for coal tar products is 0.1 mg/m3 (cyclohexane-extractable fraction).
The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for coal tar pitch volatiles is 0.2 mg/m3 (benzene-soluble fraction). OSHA defines “coal tar pitch volatiles” in 29 CFR 1910.1002 as the fused polycyclic hydrocarbons that volatilize from the distillation residues of coal, petroleum (excluding asphalt), wood, and other organic matter and includes substances such as anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), phenanthrene, acridine, chrysene, pyrene, etc.
Coke Oven Emissions
The production of coke by the carbonization of bituminous coal leads to the release of chemically-complex emissions from coke ovens that include both gases and particulate matter of varying chemical composition.
The emissions include coal tar pitch volatiles (e.g., particulate polycyclic organic matter [PPOM], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons [PNAs]), aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene and beta-naphthylamine), trace metals (e.g., arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and nickel), and gases (e.g., nitric oxides and sulfur dioxide).
Cotton Dust (raw)
NIOSH recommends reducing exposures to cotton dust to the lowest feasible concentration to reduce the prevalence and severity of byssinosis; the REL is <0.200 mg/m3 (as lint-free cotton dust).
As found in OSHA Table Z-1 (29 CFR 1910.1000), the PEL for cotton dust (raw) is 1 mg/m3 for the cotton waste processing operations of waste recycling (sorting, blending, cleaning, and willowing) and garnetting.
PELs for other sectors (as found in 29 CFR 1910.1043) are 0.200 mg/m3 for yarn manufacturing and cotton washing operations, 0.500 mg/m3 for textile mill waste house operations or for dust from “lower grade washed cotton” used during yarn manufacturing, and 0.750 mg/m3 for textile slashing and weaving operations.
The OSHA standard in 29 CFR 1910.1043 does not apply to cotton harvesting, ginning, or the handling and processing of woven or knitted materials and washed cotton.
All PELs for cotton dust are mean concentrations of lint-free, respirable cotton dust collected by the vertical elutriator or an equivalent method and averaged over an 8-hour period.
NIOSH considers “Lead” to mean metallic lead, lead oxides, and lead salts (including organic salts such as lead soaps but excluding lead arsenate).
The NIOSH REL for lead (8-hour TWA) is 0.050 mg/m3; air concentrations should be maintained so that worker blood lead remains less than 0.060 mg Pb/100 g of whole blood.
OSHA considers “Lead” to mean metallic lead, all inorganic lead compounds (lead oxides and lead salts), and a class of organic compounds called soaps; all other lead compounds are excluded from this definition.
The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) is 0.050 mg/m3; other OSHA requirements can be found in 29 CFR 1910.1025. The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for lead in “non-ferrous foundries with less than 20 employees” is 0.075 mg/m3.
The OSHA PELS for “mineral dusts” listed below are from Table Z-3 of 29 CFR 1910.1000.
The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for amorphous silica (including diatomaceous earth) is either 80 mg/m3 divided by the value “%SiO2,” or 20 mppcf.
The OSHA PELs (8-hour TWAs) for talc (not containing asbestos), mica, and soapstone are 20 mppcf. The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for portland cement is 50 mppcf. The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for graphite (natural) is 15 mppcf. The PELs for talc (not containing asbestos), mica, soapstone, and portland cement are applicable if the material contains less than 1% crystalline silica.
The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for coal dust (as the respirable fraction) containing less than 5% SiO2 is 2.4 mg/m3 divided by the value “%SiO2 + 2.” The OSHA PEL (8-hour TWA) for coal dust (as the respirable fraction) containing greater than or equal to 5% SiO2 is 10 mg/m3 divided by the value “%SiO2 + 2.”
NIAX® Catalyst ESN
In May 1978, OSHA and NIOSH jointly published the Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) 26: NIAX® Catalyst ESN.
In this CIB, OSHA and NIOSH recommended that occupational exposure to NIAX® Catalyst ESN, its components, dimethylaminopropionitrile and bis(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)ether, as well as formulations containing either component, be minimized.
Exposures should be limited to as few workers as possible, while minimizing workplace exposure concentrations with effective work practices and engineering controls.
Exposed workers should be carefully monitored for potential disorders of the nervous and genitourinary system. Although substitution is a possible control measure, alternatives to NIAX® Catalyst ESN or its components should be carefully evaluated with regard to possible adverse health effects.
NIOSH considers trichloroethylene (TCE) to be a potential occupational carcinogen and recommends a REL of 2 ppm (as a 60-minute ceiling) during the usage of TCE as an anesthetic agent and 25 ppm (as a 10-hour TWA) during all other exposures.
Tungsten Carbide (Cemented)
“Cemented tungsten carbide” or “hard metal” refers to a mixture of tungsten carbide, cobalt, and sometimes metal oxides or carbides and other metals (including nickel).
When the cobalt (Co) content exceeds 2%, its contribution to the potential hazard is judged to exceed that of tungsten carbide.
Therefore, the NIOSH REL (10-hour TWA) for cemented tungsten carbide containing >2% Co is 0.05 mg Co/m3; the applicable OSHA PEL is 0.1 mg Co/m3 (8-hour TWA). Nickel (Ni) may sometimes be used as a binder rather than cobalt.
NIOSH considers cemented tungsten carbide containing nickel to be a potential occupational carcinogen and recommends a REL of 0.015 mg Ni/m3 (10-hour TWA).
The OSHA PEL for Insoluble Nickel (i.e., a 1 mg Ni/m3 8-hour TWA) applies to mixtures of tungsten carbide and nickel.