American Indians and Alaska Natives
Health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of a disease and the related adverse health conditions that exist among specific population groups. These groups may be characterized by gender, age, race or ethnicity, education, income, social class, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation. These health disparities are one reason why HIV/AIDS, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB take a greater toll in one population group over another. Find information about how these diseases affect American Indian and Alaska Native populations.
Though the overall numbers are small, in 2014, the estimated rate (per 100,000 population) of diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States among American Indian/Alaska Native males was greater (18.3) than the rate for white males (12.6). The rate per 100,000 population among American Indian/Alaska Native females was greater (5.1) than for white females (1.7).
In 2014, the gonorrhea rate among American Indians/Alaska Natives was 159.4 cases per 100,000 population, which was 4.2 times the rate among whites. The disparity between gonorrhea rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives and whites was larger for American Indian/Alaska Native women (5.6 times) than for American Indian/Alaska Native men (2.9 times). In 2014, the disparity in gonorrhea rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives was larger in the Midwest than in the West, Northeast, and South.
In 2014, the chlamydia rate among American Indians/Alaska Natives was 668.8 cases per 100,000 population, a decrease from the 2013 rate of 697.9 cases per 100,000. Overall, the rate of chlamydia among American Indians/Alaska Natives in the United States was 3.7 times the rate among whites.
In 2014, the rate of primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis among American Indians/Alaska Natives was 7.6 cases per 100,000 population. The 2014 rate of P&S syphilis for American Indians/Alaska Natives was 2.2 times the rate for whites. This disparity was larger for American Indian/Alaska Native women (9.6 times the rate among white women) than for American Indian/Alaska Native men (1.6 times the rate among white men).
- STD Topic Site
- STDs and Health Disparities
- STD Surveillance Report
- STDs in Racial and Ethnic Minorities
Acute Hepatitis A
The rates of acute hepatitis A has declined from 2000-2011. Rates increased in 2012 and 2013 and declined in 2014. The rate of hepatitis A among American Indians/Alaska Natives decreased to 0.15 cases per 100,000 population in 2014, the lowest ever reported for American Indians/Alaska Natives and the lowest rate among all racial/ethnic groups.
Acute Hepatitis B
In 2014, there were little differences between the rates of acute hepatitis B among American Indians/Alaska Natives, Black, non-Hispanics and white, non-Hispanics (0.83, 0.88, and 0.86 cases per 100,000 population, respectively).
Acute Hepatitis C
During 2002–2011, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis C remained below 0.5 cases per 100,000. The rate increased to 0.6 cases per 100,000 population in 2012 and to 0.7 cases per 100,000 population in 2013 and 2014. In 2014 American Indians/Alaska Natives had the highest rate for hepatitis C at 1.32 case per 100,000 population.
In 2014, 118 of the 9,421 TB cases reported to CDC were among American Indians or Alaska Natives.
Tuberculosis in indigenous peoples in the U.S., 2003-2008external icon. Bloss E, Holtz TH, Jereb J, Redd JT, Podewils LJ, Cheek JE, McCray E. Public Health Rep. 2011 Sep-Oct;126(5):677-89. PMID: 21886328
Patients diagnosed with tuberculosis at death or who died during therapy: association with the human immunodeficiency virusexternal icon. Marks SM, Magee E, Robison V. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011 Apr;15(4):465-70. PMID: 21396204
Schneider E. Tuberculosis among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1993-2002. American Journal of Public Health. 2005;95(5):873-880