Outbreak-Related Questions and Answers for Patients
- I got the vaccine but still got mumps. Does this mean the vaccine doesn’t work?
- Is mumps a serious disease?
- I've been told that I need to stay away from people while I'm sick with mumps. What does that mean and why does it matter?
- What else should I do to prevent mumps from spreading?
- What should I do during a mumps outbreak?
- What is CDC’s role in responding to mumps cases and outbreaks?
A: MMR vaccine prevents most, but not all, cases of mumps and complications caused by the disease. People who have received two doses of the MMR vaccine are about nine times less likely to get mumps than unvaccinated people who have the same exposure to mumps virus. However, some people who receive two doses of MMR can still get mumps, especially if they have prolonged, close contact with someone who has the disease. If a vaccinated person does get mumps, they will likely have less severe illness than an unvaccinated person.
Before there was a vaccine, mumps was a common childhood disease in the United States. In some cases, the disease caused complications, such as permanent deafness in children and, occasionally, swelling of the brain (encephalitis), which in rare cases resulted in death. From year to year, the number of mumps cases can range from roughly a couple hundred to a couple thousand. In some years, there are more cases of mumps than usual because of outbreaks. See Mumps Cases and Outbreaks for more information.
A: Mumps can be serious, but most people with mumps recover completely within two weeks. While infected with mumps, many people feel tired and achy, have a fever, and swollen salivary glands on the side of the face. Others may feel extremely ill and be unable to eat because of jaw pain, and a few will develop serious complications. Men and adolescent boys can develop pain or swelling in their testicles. Women and adolescent girls can develop pain or swelling in their ovaries. Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) and loss of hearing can also occur, and in rare cases, this hearing loss can be permanent. The most serious complication is inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), which can lead to death or permanent disability.
Q: I’ve been told that I need to stay away from people while I’m sick with mumps. What does that mean and why does it matter?
A: When you have mumps, you should avoid contact with other people until five days after your salivary glands begin to swell because you are contagious during this time. You should not go to work, school, or any social events. You should stay home when you are sick with mumps and limit contact with the people you live with; for example, sleep in a separate room by yourself if you can. Staying home while sick with mumps is an important way to avoid spreading the virus to other people. People who are infected with mumps don’t get sick right away—it can take 2 to 4 weeks for them to show signs of infection.
A: In addition to staying away from others when you have mumps, you can help prevent the virus from spreading by
- Covering your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, and put your used tissue in the trash can. If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve or elbow, not your hands.
- Washing your hands often with soap and water.
- Avoiding sharing objects that might have saliva on them, like water bottles or cups.
- Disinfecting frequently touched surfaces, such as toys, doorknobs, tables, counters.
A: Make sure you and your family are up to date on your MMR vaccine. Your local public health authorities or institution might recommend that people who belong to a group at increased risk for mumps get an additional dose. These groups are usually those who are likely to have close contact, such as sharing sport equipment or drinks, kissing, or living in close quarters, with a person who has mumps. Your local public health authorities will communicate to the groups at increased risk that they should receive this dose. If you already have two doses of MMR, it is not necessary to seek out vaccination unless you are part of this group.
For more information on vaccination recommendations, visit the Mumps Vaccination webpage.
Let your doctor know right away if you think that you or someone in your family may have mumps.
In any situation, including when there is a mumps outbreak, washing hands often with soap and water and having good health practices are the most important steps you can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.
A: State and local health departments have the lead in investigating mumps cases and outbreaks when they occur. CDC helps and supports health departments in these investigations by—
- communicating with public health officials from states with reported mumps cases and providing technical assistance.
- gathering data reported by states on confirmed mumps cases and evaluating and monitoring these data from a national perspective.
- testing clinical specimens from suspected mumps cases when requested by states.
- using molecular methods to determine mumps virus genotypes.
- providing technical assistance and answering questions related to mumps molecular and serologic laboratory testing.
- providing rapid assistance on the ground during outbreak investigations, often through a formal request by the state health department.
- investing in state and local health departments for public health infrastructure and laboratory capacity to support front-line response to suspected and confirmed mumps cases.
- alerting clinicians, healthcare facilities, and public health officials around the country about current outbreaks and providing vaccine policy, clinical guidance for healthcare providers, and outbreak guidance and materials for health departments.
- providing information to public and healthcare providers through a variety of media including the CDC website.
More information about the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases, like mumps