Notes from the Field: An Outbreak of Salmonella Agbeni Infections Linked to Turtle Exposure — United States, 2017
Weekly / December 7, 2018 / 67(48);1350
Views: Views equals page views plus PDF downloadsMetric Details
Lia Koski, MPH1,2; Lauren Stevenson, MHS1,3; Jasmine Huffman1; Amy Robbins, MPH4; Julia Latash, MPH5,6; Enoma Omoregie, PhD5; Kelly Kline, MPH7; Megin Nichols, DVM1 (View author affiliations)View suggested citation
In June 2017, PulseNet, the national molecular subtyping network for foodborne disease surveillance, identified 17 Salmonella Agbeni clinical isolates with indistinguishable XbaI enzyme pattern (outbreak strain) by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The same Salmonella Agbeni XbaI pattern was isolated from a turtle in 2015; in a 2016 investigation involving the same outbreak strain, 63% of patients reported contact with turtles (CDC, unpublished data, 2016). Despite prohibition of sale of small turtles (shell length less <4 inches) in the United States since 1975 (1), illness outbreaks associated with turtle contact continue to occur. Ill persons in previous Salmonella Poona and Salmonella Pomona outbreaks linked to turtles were geographically concentrated in the Southwest region of the United States (2,3). Turtle production is known to be higher in the Southeast region of the country (2). An outbreak investigation by CDC and health departments was initiated to identify the source of the 2017 illness outbreak.
A case was defined as isolation of Salmonella Agbeni with the outbreak strain from an ill patient during April–December 2017. State and local health officials interviewed patients to ascertain turtle exposure information, including details about the species of turtle and purchasing information. Purchase locations reported by patients were contacted for traceback information. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), using high quality single nucleotide polymorphism (hqSNP) analysis, was performed by CDC on clinical isolates from the 2017 outbreak, the 2016 illness cluster, and the turtle isolate from 2015 to characterize genetic relatedness.
Seventy-six cases were identified in 19 states in 2017; two thirds (67%) of patients resided in East Coast states (Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia).* Patient ages ranged from <1–100 years (median = 21 years). Among 63 (83%) patients with information on hospitalization, 30 (48%) were hospitalized; no deaths were reported. Fifty-nine (78%) patients provided exposure information, including 23 (39%) who reported contact with turtles; among these, 14 (61%) specified small turtles. Among 12 patients who reported how the turtles were obtained, six purchased them from a street or roadside vendor, three purchased them from a retail store, two purchased them at festivals, and one reported receiving them as a gift. The traceback investigation did not identify a common turtle farm that supplied purchase locations. WGS hqSNP analysis indicated that the 2017 and 2016 clinical isolates and the 2015 turtle isolate were closely related, differing by 0–18 SNPs.
This salmonellosis outbreak was linked to contact with small turtles and was associated with a higher frequency of hospitalization (48%) than multistate foodborne pathogen outbreaks (27%) as well as recent Salmonella outbreaks linked to turtles (28%–33%) (2–4). The geographic distribution of patients differed from that of previous outbreaks, suggesting the need to better understand the breeding of turtles and distribution of turtle sales in the United States. WGS hqSNP analysis was used to link historic illnesses and turtle isolates to isolates from 2017 patients, supporting the hypothesis that turtles were the likely source of this outbreak. This outbreak indicates further need to educate consumers and retail store staff members regarding the ban on sale of small turtles and to educate consumers to prevent transmission of Salmonella from pets to humans.
Corresponding author: Lia Koski, email@example.com, 404-718-5887.
1Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC; 2Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee; 3CAITTA, Inc., Herndon, Virginia; 4New York State Department of Health; 5New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene; 6CDC/CSTE Applied Epidemiology Fellowship; 7Pennsylvania Department of Health.
All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE form for disclosure of potential conflicts of interest. No potential conflicts of interest were disclosed.
- Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements, 21 C.F.R. Sect. 1240.62 (2011). https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/cfrsearch.cfm?fr=1240.62
- Gambino-Shirley K, Stevenson L, Concepción-Acevedo J, et al. Flea market finds and global exports: four multistate outbreaks of human Salmonella infections linked to small turtles, United States—2015. Zoonoses Public Health 2018;65:560–8. CrossRef PubMed
- Basler C, Bottichio L, Higa J, Prado B, Wong M, Bosch S. Multistate outbreak of human Salmonella Poona infections associated with pet turtle exposure—United States, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2015;64:804. CrossRef PubMed
- CDC. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks, United States, 2016: annual report. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2018. https://www.cdc.gov/fdoss/pdf/2016_FoodBorneOutbreaks_508.pdf
Suggested citation for this article: Koski L, Stevenson L, Huffman J, et al. Notes from the Field: An Outbreak of Salmonella Agbeni Infections Linked to Turtle Exposure — United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:1350. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6748a5.
MMWR and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report are service marks of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Use of trade names and commercial sources is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
References to non-CDC sites on the Internet are provided as a service to MMWR readers and do not constitute or imply endorsement of these organizations or their programs by CDC or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. CDC is not responsible for the content of pages found at these sites. URL addresses listed in MMWR were current as of the date of publication.
All HTML versions of MMWR articles are generated from final proofs through an automated process. This conversion might result in character translation or format errors in the HTML version. Users are referred to the electronic PDF version (https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr) and/or the original MMWR paper copy for printable versions of official text, figures, and tables.
Questions or messages regarding errors in formatting should be addressed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Page last reviewed: December 6, 2018
- Page last updated: December 6, 2018
- Content source: