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Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention — 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013–2016


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Jonas Z. Hines, MD1; Onkemetse Conrad Ntsuape2; Kananga Malaba, MD3; Tiruneh Zegeye, MD4; Kennedy Serrem, MD5; Elijah Odoyo-June, PhD6; Rose Kolola Nyirenda, MSc7; Wezi Msungama, MPH8; Kondwani Nkanaunena, MS8; Jotamo Come, MD9; Marcos Canda, MS10; Herminio Nhaguiombe, MS10; Ella K. Shihepo, MPH11; Brigitte L.T. Zemburuka12; Gram Mutandi, MBChB12; Emmanuel Yoboka, MD13; André H. Mbayiha, MD14; Hilda Maringa15; Alfred Bere, PhD15; J. Joseph Lawrence, MPH15; Gissenge J.I. Lija, MD16; Daimon Simbeye, MPH17; Kokuhumbya Kazaura, DDS17; Ramadhani S. Mwiru, MD17; Stella Alamo Talisuna, PhD18; Joseph Lubwama, MD18; Geoffrey Kabuye, MD18; James Exnobert Zulu, MBChB19; Omega Chituwo, MBChB20; Maybin Mumba, MSc20; Sinokuthemba Xaba, MSc21; John Mandisarisa, PhD22; Brittney N. Baack, MPH1; Lawrence Hinkle, MSPH1; Jonathan M. Grund, MPH1; Stephanie M. Davis,, MD1; Carlos Toledo, PhD1 (View author affiliations)

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Summary

What is already known about this topic?

Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been recognized by the World Health Organization and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS as an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention intervention in settings with a generalized HIV epidemic and low male circumcision prevalence. During 2010–2012, CDC (through the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief) supported 1,020,424 VMMCs in nine countries in Southern and Eastern Africa.

What is added by this report?

During 2013–2016, CDC-supported implementation partners performed 4,859,948 VMMCs in 12 countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, a substantial increase from 2010–2012.

What are the implications for public health practice?

Although millions of males have been medically circumcised in CDC-supported programs, many more VMMCs need to be performed to reach global targets. This will require redoubling current efforts and introducing novel strategies that increase demand among subgroups of males who have historically been reluctant to undergo VMMC.

Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa have the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world; in 2015, 52% (approximately 19 million) of all persons living with HIV infection resided in these two regions.* Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection among males by approximately 60% (1). As such, it is an essential component of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) strategy for ending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2030 (2). Substantial progress toward achieving VMMC targets has been made in the 10 years since the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS recommended scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in 14 Southern and Eastern African countries with generalized HIV epidemics and low male circumcision prevalence (3). This has been enabled in part by nearly $2 billion in cumulative funding through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), administered through multiple U.S. governmental agencies, including CDC, which has supported nearly half of all PEPFAR-supported VMMCs to date. Approximately 14.5 million VMMCs were performed globally during 2008–2016, which represented 70% of the original target of 20.8 million VMMCs in males aged 15–49 years through 2016 (4). Despite falling short of the target, these VMMCs are projected to avert 500,000 HIV infections by the end of 2030 (4). However, UNAIDS has estimated an additional 27 million VMMCs need to be performed by 2021 to meet the Fast Track targets (2). This report updates a previous report covering the period 2010–2012, when VMMC implementing partners supported by CDC performed approximately 1 million VMMCs in nine countries (5). During 2013–2016, these implementing partners performed nearly 5 million VMMCs in 12 countries. Meeting the global target will require redoubling current efforts and introducing novel strategies that increase demand among subgroups of males who have historically been reluctant to undergo VMMC.

CDC supports national ministries of health to provide VMMC services for HIV prevention in 12 priority countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.§ The VMMC service package includes male circumcision, offer of HIV testing services and linkage to care and treatment for men testing HIV positive, HIV risk reduction education, condom provision, and screening and treatment or referral for sexually transmitted infections (3). Circumcisions are performed under local anesthesia by trained clinicians (clinical officers and nurses in most countries). All VMMC clients provide informed consent; consenting for minors adheres to national standards.

CDC-supported VMMC programs reported program data on key indicators. Data were reported in accordance with the fiscal year October 1–September 30. Data were drawn from site-level VMMC client registers, collected by VMMC implementing partners, and reported to PEPFAR and CDC. The primary indicator was the total number of VMMCs performed; disaggregated indicators included VMMC method (conventional surgical circumcision or device-based circumcision), client age group, HIV test results among VMMC clients tested at VMMC sites, and attendance at postoperative follow-up visits within 14 days.

During 2013–2014, client age was reported as <15 or ≥15 years; during 2015–2016, age was categorized as <15 years, 15–29 years, and ≥30 years. HIV prevalence was calculated by dividing the number of males that tested positive for HIV infection by the number undergoing HIV testing services at VMMC sites. In this report, disaggregated indicators were excluded from multi-country analyses if the sum of values in the disaggregated indicator was <85% or >100% of the total number of VMMCs reported for a given year.

During 2013–2016, CDC supported 4,859,948 VMMCs in 12 Southern and Eastern African countries (Table 1). The annual number of VMMCs increased during 2013–2015. In 2016, 181,737 (13.4%) fewer VMMCs were performed than in 2015. In multi-country analyses, the proportion of VMMC clients aged <15 years increased each year during 2013–2016, from 31.7% in 2013 to 47.6% in 2016 (Table 2). Conversely, the proportion of VMMC clients aged 15–29 years declined from 48.4% in 2015 to 45.6% in 2016. During 2013–2016, circumcision devices were used in 42,520 (1.1%) of the VMMCs.

Data from multi-country analyses indicated that, during 2013–2016, 89.3% of VMMC clients participated in HIV testing services, and among those tested, the percentage of clients who tested positive ranged from 0.8% to 1.3% (at the country level, the percentage testing positive ranged from <0.1% to 4.4%) (Table 2). All VMMC clients were advised to return for a postoperative assessment; overall, 71.9% returned to the circumcising site within 14 days of surgery.

Discussion

During 2013–2016, nearly 5 million adolescent and adult males were medically circumcised by CDC-supported VMMC programs in 12 countries in Southern and Eastern Africa. Considering that a decade ago, male circumcision was not a social norm in many of these countries, and the human and structural resources for this surgical intervention were minimal before scale-up, this represents a substantial accomplishment. In addition, many of the men who sought VMMC would not have otherwise had contact with the medical system in the absence of significant injury or illness.

However, the number of VMMCs declined in 2016, and several large-volume programs also performed fewer VMMCs in 2015. Multiple factors likely contributed to this decline, including 1) slowing of service delivery in several countries following recognition of tetanus as a rare but severe complication of VMMC, because many males in Southern and Eastern Africa were never fully immunized (6); 2) retraining providers in dorsal slit circumcision technique in some countries upon identification that the forceps-guided technique posed elevated risk for injury to the immature penis (7); 3) prioritization of VMMC service delivery to geographic regions with the highest HIV prevalence for greater impact; and 4) possibly declining demand because many early adopters had already been circumcised.

Multiple countries increased the proportion of males aged 15–29 years who were provided VMMC in 2016, when PEPFAR began emphasizing prioritizing VMMC in this age group to most immediately achieve the HIV preventive benefit of VMMC (8); however, the overall percentage of males aged 15–29 years who were circumcised declined in 2016. CDC continues to work with partners to identify and implement innovative approaches to increase VMMC demand among these men (9). The large proportion of VMMC clients aged <15 years also likely accounts for the lower HIV prevalence observed among VMMC clients compared with national estimates,** because many of those aged <15 years likely had not yet had sexual intercourse, the primary mode of HIV transmission in this setting.

The findings in this report are subject to at least four limitations. First, the findings reflect results from CDC-supported VMMC programs rather than national, PEPFAR, or global totals. Data entry errors and reporting variations are possible, and data were incomplete for some countries in some years. Second, during 2013–2014, the disaggregated age group indicator definition prevented reporting on males aged 15–29 years. Third, use of HIV testing services did not include clients with indeterminate results or those who might have been tested elsewhere recently, possibly affecting the HIV prevalence estimate among VMMC clients. Finally, follow-up within 14 days was likely underestimated because reported data might not include males who sought care at another health care site different from the one where they underwent circumcision.

VMMC is an evidence-based, one-time intervention that confers lifelong partial protection against HIV infection for males. In addition, its benefits carry over to females by lowering the prevalence of HIV (and several other sexually transmitted infections) among potential sex partners (10). To date, significant progress has been made by countries with VMMC programs. However, many more VMMCs need to be performed to reach the ambitious UNAIDS target by 2021. Enhancing VMMC service delivery will involve simultaneous focusing on supply-side and demand-side factors. On the supply side, VMMC programs are 1) offering service delivery on days and times that best match clients’ needs, including evening and weekend hours; 2) using mobile outreach service delivery to overcome geographic barriers; 3) ensuring safe service delivery through quality improvement and assurance activities and rigorous adverse event monitoring (6); 4) where possible, layering VMMC service delivery with other health care services such as preexposure prophylaxis, HIV care and treatment, and general medical care; and 5) incorporating medical innovations (e.g., new circumcision devices) that might enhance acceptability of VMMC for some males.

To increase demand for VMMC, programs are 1) evolving messaging from generating general awareness to addressing specific concerns of persons who have been hesitant to undergo VMMC; 2) linking VMMC with prevention activities for women (e.g., perinatal HIV testing services and HIV prevention programs that target adolescent girls and young women [i.e., the DREAMS program††]); 3) engaging community stakeholders, such as traditional and religious leaders, celebrities, and satisfied VMMC clients, to become VMMC champions; 4) compensating clients for the opportunity cost of undergoing VMMC; and 5) ensuring VMMC services are available to men regardless of HIV status, through voluntarism of HIV testing services. Going forward, country programs at or nearing targets should begin planning for VMMC program sustainability, including VMMC training and program staffing operated by ministries of health, regional or national government contributions to VMMC financing, and establishing a framework to maintain high male circumcision coverage by continuing a VMMC program for adolescents males aged 10–14 years and/or introducing routine early infant male circumcision. Reaching and maintaining high male circumcision coverage in countries with high prevalence of HIV infection remains a critical component of achieving an AIDS-free generation.

Acknowledgments

Brian Batayeh, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Bhavin Jani, World Health Organization-Tanzania.

Conflict of Interest

No conflicts of interest were reported.


Corresponding author: Jonas Z. Hines, jhines1@cdc.gov, 404-639-3311.

1Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC; 2Ministry of Health and Wellness, Botswana; 3Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Botswana; 4Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Ethiopia; 5National AIDS and STIs Control Programme, Kenya; 6Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Kenya; 7Ministry of Health, Malawi; 8Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Malawi; 9Ministry of Health, Mozambique; 10Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Mozambique; 11Ministry of Health and Social Services, Namibia; 12Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Namibia; 13Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Rwanda; 14Ministry of Health, Rwanda; 15Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC South Africa; 16National AIDS Control Program, Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children, Tanzania; 17Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Tanzania; 18Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Uganda; 19Ministry of Health, Zambia; 20Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Zambia; 21Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe; 22Division of Global HIV and Tuberculosis, CDC Zimbabwe.


* http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/.

In 2015, the prevalence of HIV infection among all persons (male and female) aged 15–49 years in the 14 priority VMMC countries was as follows: Botswana (22.2%), Ethiopia (not available), Kenya (5.9%), Lesotho (22.7%), Malawi (9.1%), Mozambique (10.5%), Namibia (13.3%), Rwanda (2.9%), South Africa (19.2%), Swaziland (28.8%), Tanzania (4.7%), Uganda (7.1%), Zambia (12.9%), and Zimbabwe (14.7%).

§ CDC support includes hiring of clinical staff members to provide VMMCs, conducting training and quality assurance assessments, providing technical assistance, and procurement of VMMC supplies, medications, and instruments.

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250146/1/WHO-HIV-2016.19-eng.pdf.

** In 2015, the prevalence of HIV infection among males aged 15–24 years in the 14 priority VMMC countries was as follows: Botswana (3.9%), Ethiopia (not available), Kenya (2.3%), Lesotho (5.1%), Malawi (1.8%), Mozambique (2.3%), Namibia (2.4%), Rwanda (0.8%), South Africa (4.0%), Swaziland (7.3%), Tanzania (1.0%), Uganda (1.9%), Zambia (3.1%), and Zimbabwe (3.8%). The prevalence among males aged 15–49 years was as follows: Botswana (17.8%), Ethiopia (not available), Kenya (4.8%), Lesotho (18.9%), Malawi (7.1%), Mozambique (8.7%), Namibia (10.7%), Rwanda (2.3%), South Africa (14.9%), Swaziland (23.2%), Tanzania (3.7%), Uganda (5.9%), Zambia (10.9%), and Zimbabwe (12.1%).

††https://www.pepfar.gov/partnerships/ppp/dreams/.

References

  1. Siegfried N, Muller M, Deeks JJ, Volmink J. Male circumcision for prevention of heterosexual acquisition of HIV in men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;(2):CD003362. PubMed
  2. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). On the fast-track to end AIDS. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS; 2015. http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/20151027_UNAIDS_PCB37_15_18_EN_rev1.pdf
  3. World Health Organization. New data on male circumcision and HIV prevention. Policy and programme implications: conclusions and recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2007. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/malecircumcision/research_implications/en
  4. World Health Organization. Voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention in 14 priority countries in East and Southern Africa. Geneva. Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2017. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/258691/1/WHO-HIV-2017.36-eng.pdf?ua=1
  5. CDC. Voluntary medical male circumcision—southern and eastern Africa, 2010–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2013;62:953–7. PubMed
  6. Grund JM, Toledo C, Davis SM, et al. Notes from the field: tetanus cases after voluntary medical male circumcision for HIV prevention—eastern and southern Africa, 2012–2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:36–7. CrossRef PubMed
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  9. Wambura M, Mahler H, Grund JM, et al. ; VMMC-Tanzania Study Group. Increasing voluntary medical male circumcision uptake among adult men in Tanzania. AIDS 2017;31:1025–34. CrossRef PubMed
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Return to your place in the textTABLE 1. VMMCs provided in CDC-supported VMMC programs — 12 Southern and Eastern African countries, 2013–2016
Country Fiscal year* Total
2013 2014 2015 2016
Botswana 11,855 12,745 7,320 23,977 55,897
Ethiopia 14,037 10,439 9,861 10,655 44,992
Kenya 144,943 154,776 147,998 176,056 623,773
Malawi 18,398 18,889 18,910 19,180 75,377
Mozambique 121,369 141,113 159,299 184,488 606,269
Namibia 0 685 7,132 10,194 18,011
Rwanda 0 21,475 25,000 8,809 55,284
South Africa 139,174 185,193 193,311 149,081 666,759
Tanzania 159,230 278,948 341,544 181,199 960,921
Uganda 272,182 329,059 251,815 225,597 1,078,653
Zambia 96,183 154,941 147,962 126,765 525,851
Zimbabwe 6,171 39,840 44,868 57,282 148,161
Yearly total 983,542 1,348,103 1,355,020 1,173,283 4,859,948
Cumulative total 983,542 2,331,645 3,686,665 4,859,948

Abbreviation: VMMC = voluntary medical male circumcision.
* October 1–September 30.

Return to your place in the textTABLE 2. Disaggregated indicators for CDC-supported VMMC programs — 12 Southern and Eastern African countries, 2013–2016
Country Fiscal year* No. of CDC-supported VMMCs performed No. of clients aged <15 yrs (%) No. of clients aged 15–29 yrs (%) No. of clients aged ≥30 yrs (%) No. of VMMCs performed using devices (%) No. of VMMC clients receiving HIV testing services (%)§ No. of clients testing HIV positive (%) No. of clients with postoperative follow-up within 14 days of VMMC (%)
Botswana 2013 11,855 4,432 (37.4) NR (—)** NR (—)** 807 (6.8) 11,855 (100.0) 23 (0.2) 9,880 (83.3)
2014 12,745 8,765 (68.8) NR (—)** NR (—)** 64 (0.5) 12,711 (99.7) 136 (1.1) 4,572 (35.9)**
2015 7,320 4,759 (65.0) 2,040 (27.9) 521 (7.1) 1,896 (25.9) 5,368 (73.3) 134 (2.5) 4,619 (63.1)
2016 23,977 4,249 (17.7)** 3,660 (15.3)** 1,414 (5.9)** 2,715 (11.3)** 6,216 (25.9)** 271 (4.4)** 5,562 (23.2)**
Total 55,897 22,205 (39.7) 5,700 (10.2) 1,935 (3.5) 5,482 (9.8) 36,150 (64.7) 564 (1.6) 24,633 (44.1)
Ethiopia 2013 14,037 56 (0.4) 11,572 (82.4) 2,409 (17.2) 0 (0.0) 13,268 (94.5) 37 (0.3) 13,905 (99.1)
2014 10,439 1,671 (16.0) 6,880 (65.9) 1,888 (18.1) 0 (0.0) 5,802 (55.6) 4 (0.1) 10,402 (99.6)
2015 9,861 608 (6.2) 7,339 (74.4) 1,914 (19.4) 0 (0.0) 8,081 (81.9) 9 (0.1) 9,861 (100.0)
2016 10,655 3,194 (30.0) 6,143 (57.7) 1,318 (12.4) 0 (0.0) 4,664 (43.8) 5 (0.1) 10,597 (99.5)
Total 44,992 5,529 (12.3) 31,934 (71.0) 7,529 (16.7) 0 (0.0) 31,815 (70.7) 55 (0.2) 44,765 (99.5)
Kenya 2013 144,943 52,643 (36.3) NR (—)** NR (—)** 512 (0.4) 112,657 (77.7) 1,360 (1.2) 45,300 (31.3)**
2014 154,776 87,066 (56.3) NR (—)** NR (—)** 302 (0.2) 129,530 (83.7) 1,380 (1.1) 66,634 (43.1)
2015 147,998 94,634 (63.9) 48,735 (32.9) 4,544 (3.1) 448 (0.3) 133,584 (90.3) 1,797 (1.3) 89,724 (60.6)
2016 176,056 123,006 (69.9) 49,075 (27.9) 3,976 (2.3) 2,201 (1.3) 145,931 (82.9) 575 (0.4) 116,933 (66.4)
Total 623,773 357,349 (57.3) 97,810 (15.7) 8,520 (1.4) 3,463 (0.6) 521,702 (83.6) 5,112 (1.0) 318,591 (51.1)
Malawi 2013 18,398 4,749 (25.8) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 18,354 (99.8) 262 (1.4) 13,287 (72.2)
2014 18,889 8,594 (45.5) NR (—)** NR (—)** 299 (1.6) 18,867 (99.9) 132 (0.7) 15,099 (79.9)
2015 18,910 6,928 (36.6) 10,033 (53.1) 1,949 (10.3) 2,949 (15.6) 18,871 (99.8) 427 (2.3) 11,309 (59.8)
2016 19,180 9,127 (47.6) 9,022 (47.0) 1,031 (5.4) 0 (0.0) 19,022 (99.2) 125 (0.7) 14,956 (78.0)
Total 75,377 29,398 (39.0) 19,055 (25.3) 2,980 (4.0) 3,248 (4.3) 75,114 (99.7) 946 (1.3) 54,651 (72.5)
Mozambique 2013 121,369 62,136 (51.2) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 123,909 (102.1)** 2,944 (2.4)** NR (—)**
2014 141,113 75,469 (53.5) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 143,055 (101.4)** 1,475 (1.0)** 98,458 (69.8)
2015 159,299 78,863 (49.5) 72,405 (45.5) 8,031 (5.0) 0 (0.0) 156,308 (98.1) 1,844 (1.2) 110,111 (69.1)
2016 184,488 78,117 (42.3) 95,033 (51.5) 11,338 (6.1) 0 (0.0) 172,814 (93.7) 2,473 (1.4) 133,781 (72.5)**
Total 606,269 294,585 (48.6) 167,438 (27.6) 19,369 (3.2) 0 (0.0) 596,086 (98.3) 8,736 (1.5) 342,350 (70.6)
Namibia 2013 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
2014 685 72 (10.5) 597 (87.2) 16 (2.3) 0 (0.0) 685 (100.0) 6 (0.9) 562 (82.0)
2015 7,132 15 (0.2) 5,706 (80.0) 1,411 (19.8) 0 (0.0) 6,283 (88.1) 211 (3.4) 7,132 (100.0)
2016 10,194 1 (0.0) 8,319 (81.6) 1,874 (18.4) 0 (0.0) 8,686 (85.2) 183 (2.1) 10,157 (99.6)
Total 18,011 88 (0.5) 14,622 (81.2) 3,301 (18.3) 0 (0.0) 15,654 (86.9) 400 (2.6) 17,851 (99.1)
Rwanda 2013 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
2014 21,475 NR (—)** NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 17,777 (82.8) 10 (0.1) NR (—)**
2015 25,000 4,693 (18.8) 17,050 (68.2) 3,227 (12.9) 194 (0.8) 24,970 (99.9) 15 (0.1) 16,647 (66.6)**
2016 8,809 593 (6.7) 7,255 (82.4) 961 (10.9) 1,336 (15.2) 8,809 (100.0) 9 (0.1) 7,454 (84.6)**
Total 55,284 5,286 (9.6) 24,305 (44.0) 4,188 (7.6) 1,530 (3.7) 51,556 (93.3) 34 (0.1) 24,101 (71.3)
South Africa 2013 139,174 29,889 (21.5) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 142,390 (102.3)** 4,048 (2.8)** 66,667 (47.9)
2014 185,193 68,231 (36.8) NR (—)** NR (—)** 56 (0.0) 194,746 (105.2)** 4,724 (2.4)** 93,939 (50.7)
2015 193,311 84,239 (43.6) NR (—)** NR (—)** 976 (0.5) 187,859 (97.2) 5,702 (3.0) 93,047 (48.1)
2016 149,081 69,266 (46.5) NR (—)** NR (—)** 3,903 (2.6) 150,211 (100.8)** 6,072 (4.0)** 102,021 (68.4)
Total 666,759 251,625 (37.7) NR (—) NR (—) 4,935 (0.7) 675,206 (101.3) 20,546 (3.0) 355,674 (53.3)
Tanzania 2013 159,230 64,173 (40.3) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) NR (—)** NR (—)** NR (—)**
2014 278,948 113,731 (40.8) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 213,239 (76.4) 1,029 (0.5) NR (—)**
2015 341,544 142,740 (41.8) 172,594 (50.5) 26,210 (7.7) 0 (0.0) 335,105 (98.1) 926 (0.3) 312,691 (91.6)
2016 181,199 88,607 (48.9) 79,239 (43.7) 13,353 (7.4) 0 (0.0) 180,845 (99.8) 458 (0.3) 150,605 (83.1)
Total 960,921 409,251 (42.6) 251,833 (26.2) 39,563 (4.1) 0 (0.0) 729,189 (75.9) 2,413 (0.3) 463,296 (88.6)
Uganda 2013 272,182 54,608 (20.1) NR (—)** NR (—)** NR (—)** 237,830 (87.4) NR (—)** NR (—)**
2014 329,059 112,555 (34.2) NR (—)** NR (—)** NR (—)** 298,060 (90.6) NR (—)** NR (—)**
2015 251,815 0 (0.0)** 0 (0.0)** 466 (0.2)** 990 (0.4)** 112,465 (44.7)** 920 (0.8)** 76,432 (30.4)**
2016 225,597 29,841 (13.2)** 35,560 (15.8)** 10,004 (4.4)** 4,168 (1.8) 215,240 (95.4) 1,144 (0.5) 173,829 (77.1)**
Total 1,078,653 197,004 (18.3) 35,560 (3.3) 10,470 (1.0) 5,158 (0.5) 863,595 (80.1) 2,064 (0.2) 250,261 (23.2)
Zambia 2013 96,183 37,310 (38.8) NR (—)** NR (—)** NR (—)** 71,407 (74.2) 491 (0.7) 77,350 (80.4)
2014 154,941 65,481 (42.3) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 116,881 (75.4) 1,742 (1.5) 130,360 (84.1)**
2015 147,962 52,716 (35.6) 82,197 (55.6) 12,701 (8.6) 4,533 (3.1) 125,137 (84.6) 2,429 (1.9) 134,762 (91.1)
2016 126,765 42,780 (33.7) 72,290 (57.0) 11,611 (9.2) 691 (0.5) 110,823 (87.4) 1,334 (1.2) 118,628 (93.6)
Total 525,851 198,287 (37.7) 154,487 (29.4) 24,312 (4.6) 5,224 (1.0) 424,248 (80.7) 5,996 (1.4) 461,100 (87.7)
Zimbabwe 2013 6,171 2,019 (32.7) NR (—)** NR (—)** 0 (0.0) 6,174 (100.0) 1 (<0.1) NR (—)**
2014 39,840 14,827 (37.2) NR (—)** NR (—)** 1,085 (2.7) 39,837 (100.0) 135 (0.3) 36,566 (91.8)
2015 44,868 19,619 (43.7) 22,453 (50.0) 2,796 (6.2) 3,452 (7.7) 44,714 (99.7) 230 (0.5) 43,180 (96.2)
2016 57,282 24,784 (43.3) 27,065 (47.2) 5,433 (9.5) 12,648 (22.1) 57,136 (99.7) 726 (1.3) 54,772 (95.6)
Total 148,161 61,249 (41.3) 49,518 (33.4) 8,229 (5.6) 17,185 (11.6) 147,861 (99.8) 1,092 (0.7) 134,518 (94.7)
All countries 2013 983,542 312,015 (31.7) NA NA 1,319 (0.1) 737,844 (75.0) 9,166 (1.2) 226,389 (23.0)
2014 1,348,103 556,462 (41.3) NA NA 1,806 (0.1) 1,191,190 (88.4) 10,773 (0.9) 456,592 (33.9)
2015 1,355,020 489,814 (44.4) 537,722 (48.7) 63,770 (5.8) 15,438 (1.1) 1,158,745 (85.5) 14,644 (1.3) 909,515 (67.1)
2016 1,173,283 473,565 (47.0) 461,923 (45.8) 62,313 (6.2) 27,662 (2.4) 1,080,397 (92.1) 13,375 (1.2) 899,295 (76.6)
Total 4,859,948 1,831,856 (41.2) 999,645 (47.3) 126,083 (6.0) 46,225 (1.0) 4,168,176 (85.8) 47,958 (1.2) 2,491,791 (51.3)
Multi-country analyses** 2013 983,542 312,015 (31.7) NA NA 1,319 (0.2) 471,545 (83.6) 2,174 (0.9) 181,089 (64.8)
2014 1,348,103 556,462 (41.9) NA NA 1,806 (0.2) 853,389 (83.5) 4,574 (0.8) 321,660 (58.4)
2015 1,355,020 489,814 (44.4) 440,552 (48.4) 63,304 (7.0) 14,448 (1.3) 1,046,280 (94.8) 13,724 (1.3) 816,436 (75.7)
2016 1,173,283 439,475 (47.6) 353,441 (45.6) 50,895 (6.6) 24,947 (2.6) 923,970 (92.4) 7,032 (0.8) 578,669 (79.2)
Total 4,859,948 1,797,766 (41.5) 793,993 (47.1) 114,199 (6.8) 42,520 (1.1) 3,295,184 (89.3) 27,504 (1.0) 1,897,854 (71.9)

Abbreviations: NA = not applicable; NR = not reported; VMMC = voluntary medical male circumcision.
* October 1–September 30.
Circumcision devices prequalified by the World Health Organization include the PrePex and ShangRing. However, PrePex was the predominant device in use in these 12 countries during 2013–2016.
§ HIV testing services exceeded 100% for certain countries that reported persons tested for HIV at VMMC clinics who did not undergo male circumcision.
HIV prevalence was calculated by dividing the number of males that tested HIV positive by the number undergoing HIV testing services at VMMC sites.
** Excluded from multi-country analyses because the sum of values in the disaggregated indicator was <85% or >100% of the total number of VMMCs reported for the given year.

Suggested citation for this article: Hines JZ, Ntsuape OC, Malaba K, et al. Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention — 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:1285–1290. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6647a2.

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