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Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

(Box) Viral Hepatitis Awareness — May 2008

Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

No summary available

Acute Hepatitis C Infections Attributed to Unsafe Injection Practices at an Endoscopy Clinic — Nevada, 2007

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
News Media Line
(404) 639-8895

An initial investigation conducted by the Southern Nevada Health District, the Nevada State Health Division, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found six cases of acute hepatitis C infection occurred through unsafe injection practices at an endoscopy clinic in Nevada, underscoring the importance of health care providers′ adherence to proper infection control procedures. After reviewing patient records and clinic practices, investigators found that hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission likely occurred through the reuse of syringes and the use of single-use medication vials on multiple patients. Viral sequences of persons infected with HCV who had procedures on the same day were similar, pointing to a common source of infection. Approximately 40,000 patients were notified of their potential exposure to bloodborne pathogens, including HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and HIV. In this initial investigation, no instances of HBV or HIV transmission were found. These findings point to the importance of viral hepatitis surveillance in detecting disease transmission. Prevention of transmission requires understanding and adherence to recommended infection-control practices, including safe injection practices.

Use of Enhanced Surveillance for Hepatitis C Virus Infection to Detect a Cluster Among Young Injection-Drug Users – New York, November 2004 - April 2007

PRESS CONTACT: Claudia Hutton
New York State Department of Health
Public Affairs Group
(518) 474-7354

Establishing effective systems that reliably detect Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections among all populations could have a lasting effect on HCV disease control. Surveillance for hepatitis C is challenging due to the nature of the disease and the effort required to collect complete information. When resources are limited, algorithms to prioritize cases for investigation can guide targeted response initiatives to get affected people needed help and prevent additional hepatitis C infections. During the summer of 2007, the New York State and Erie County Departments of Health investigated a cluster of hepatitis C among adolescents and young adults in Erie County. The major risk factor reported was intravenous drug use. The Departments cooperated to investigate the cluster and implement interventions that included education, testing, and referral to medical, mental health, and addiction therapy. This demonstrates the utility of enhanced surveillance to guide effective resource deployment.

Multistate Outbreak of Human Salmonella Infections Caused by Contaminated Dry Dog Food — United States, 2006-2007

Division of Media Relations
(404) 639-3286

This investigation, the first one to identify dry dog food as the source of human Salmonella infections, demonstrates that dry pet food may be contaminated with Salmonella and be an under-recognized source of human infections, especially in young children. After handling pet foods, pet owners should wash their hands immediately, and infants should be kept away from pet feeding areas. The first report of human Salmonella infections caused by dry dog food occurred from 2006 to 2007. At least 70 persons, primarily in the Northeastern U.S., were infected with Salmonella by brands of dry dog food produced at a single Pennsylvania facility. Approximately 40 percent of patients were infants. No pets were reported to be ill. However, this same germ was isolated from samples of feces from dogs that ate dry pet food in the homes of patients, from open bags of dry dog food being fed to these dogs, from the pet food plant environment, and from two brands of unopened bags of dry dog food made at this plant. The manufacturer announced a voluntary recall of select bags of these two brands. Neither of the recalled brands were linked to human illness.

Paddle Sports Fatalities — Maine, 2000-2007

Jon Eric Tongren, PhD, MSPH, EIS Officer
(207) 287-6028

Paddle sports (canoeing, kayaking, and rafting) deaths are preventable and may be reduced by enrolling in a boating education course specific to paddle sports which stresses preparedness and safety, universal and correct use of personal flotation devices, and the avoidance of alcohol before and during paddle sports-related activities. Participation in paddle sports and sales of canoes, kayaks, and rafts have increased over the last decade and might be more accessible to most of the population compared to other boating activities. Therefore, we analyzed the trends and characteristics of deaths associated with paddle sports in Maine from 2000 to 2007 to identify possible prevention strategies to reduce paddle sports fatalities. The findings suggest that factors associated with paddle sports deaths include being male, not using personal flotation devices (e.g. life jackets), using alcohol, inexperience, and capsizing the vessel. During 2000-2007, 38 paddle sport fatalities were identified in Maine comprising 46 percent of the 82 total boating deaths which is three times the national average (13 percent). Prevention strategies include encouraging enrollment in paddle sports-specific education courses, promoting universal and correct personal flotation device use, and discouraging alcohol use before and during paddle sport activities.



  • Historical Document: May 15, 2008
  • Content source: Office of Enterprise Communication
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