Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2018: Women

HIV Surveillance - Women

Special Focus Profiles

The Special Focus Profiles highlight trends and distribution of HIV in 5 populations of particular interest to HIV prevention programs in state and local health departments: (1) Transgender Persons, (2) Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men, (3) Persons Who Inject Drugs, (4) Women, and (5) Children Aged <13 Years.

Though HIV diagnoses among women have declined in recent years, more than 7,000 women received an HIV diagnosis in the United States and 6 dependent areas in 2018. One in nine women with HIV are unaware they have it. Because some women may be unaware of their male partner’s risk factors for HIV (such as injection drug use or having sex with men), they may not use condoms or medicines to prevent HIV. Additionally, HIV testing rates within the past year were low among women with sexual behaviors that increase their risk of acquiring HIV and especially low among those who reported anal sex.

Diagnoses of HIV Infection

Figure 20. Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Female Adults and Adolescents, 2018—United States and 6 Dependent Areas

In 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the rate of diagnoses of HIV infection among female adults and adolescents was 5.1 per 100,000 population. The rate of diagnoses for female adults and adolescents ranged from zero per 100,000 in American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and the Republic of Palau to 19.4 per 100,000 in the District of Columbia, 12.6 in Louisiana, 11.9 in Georgia, 10.3 in Maryland, and 10.0 in Florida. The District of Columbia (i.e., Washington, DC) is a city; use caution when comparing the HIV diagnosis rate in DC with the rates in states.

In 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the rate of diagnoses of HIV infection among female adults and adolescents was 5.1 per 100,000 population (Figure 20). The rate of diagnoses for female adults and adolescents ranged from 0.0 per 100,000 in American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and the Republic of Palau to 19.4 per 100,000 in the District of Columbia, 12.6 in Louisiana, 11.9 in Georgia, 10.3 in Maryland, and 10.0 in Florida.

Race/Ethnicity

Figure 21. Percentages of Diagnoses of HIV Infection and Population among Female Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity, 2018—United States

In 2018 in the United States, blacks/African Americans made up 13% of the female population but accounted for 58% of diagnoses of HIV infection among females. Whites made up 62% of the female population and accounted for 21% of diagnoses of HIV infection among females. Hispanics/Latinos made up 16% of the female population and accounted for 17% of diagnoses of HIV infection among females. Asians made up 6% of the female population but accounted for 1% of HIV diagnoses among females. Females of multiple races made up 2% of the female population and accounted for 3% of HIV diagnoses among females. Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and American Indians/Alaska Natives each made up 1% or less of the female population and each accounted for less than 1% of HIV diagnoses among females. Please use caution when interpreting data for American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, females of multiple races, Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander females: the numbers are small. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Note: See Data Tables, Definitions, and Acronyms for more information on race/ethnicity.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

In 2018 in the United States, blacks/African Americans made up 13% of the female population but accounted for 58% of diagnoses of HIV infection among females (Figure 21). Whites made up 62% of the female population and accounted for 21% of diagnoses of HIV infection among females. Hispanics/Latinos made up 16% of the female population and accounted for 17% of diagnoses of HIV infection among females. Asians made up 6% of the female population but accounted for 1% of HIV diagnoses among females. Females of multiple races made up 2% of the female population and accounted for 3% of HIV diagnoses among females. Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders and American Indians/Alaska Natives each made up 1% or less of the female population and each accounted for less than 1% of HIV diagnoses among females. Please use caution when interpreting data for American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander females, and females of multiple races: the numbers are small.

Figure 22. Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Female Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity, 2014–2018—United States and 6 Dependent Areas

From 2014 through 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, black/African American female adults and adolescents accounted for the largest numbers of diagnoses of HIV infection each year although the number decreased from 4,573 in 2014 to 4,097 in 2018. White and Hispanic/Latino female adults and adolescents had similar numbers of diagnoses of HIV infection each year. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Note: See Data Tables, Definitions, and Acronyms for more information on race/ethnicity.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

From 2014 through 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, black/African American female adults and adolescents accounted for the largest numbers of diagnoses of HIV infection each year although the number decreased from 4,573 in 2014 to 4,097 in 2018 (Figure 22). White and Hispanic/Latino female adults and adolescents had similar numbers of diagnoses of HIV infection each year. In 2018, 1,491 diagnoses of HIV infection were among white females, 1,269 among Hispanic/Latino females, 194 among females of multiple races, 104 among Asian females, 30 among American Indian/Alaska Native females, and 5 among Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander females. Please use caution when interpreting data for Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander females: the numbers are small.

Race/Ethnicity and Transmission Category

Figure 23. Percentages of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Female Adults and Adolescents, by Race/Ethnicity and Transmission Category, 2018—United States and 6 Dependent Areas

In 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, black/African American female adults and adolescents had the largest percentage (92%) of diagnoses of HIV infection attributed to heterosexual contact among females, followed by Hispanic/Latino (87%) and white (64%) females. The percentage (43%) of diagnoses of HIV infection attributed to injection drug use was largest among American Indian/Alaska Native female adults and adolescents, followed by white (35%), Hispanic/Latino (12%) and black/African American (8%) females. The perinatal and “Other” transmission categories accounted for 1% or less of cases among each racial/ethnic group. Data have been statistically adjusted to account for missing transmission category.  Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race. Heterosexual contact is with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.

Note. Data have been statistically adjusted to account for missing transmission category. See Data Tables, Definitions, and Acronyms for more information on race/ethnicity and transmission categories.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

In 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, black/African American female adults and adolescents had the largest percentage (92%) of diagnoses of HIV infection attributed to heterosexual contact among females, followed by Hispanic/Latino (87%) and white (64%) females (Figure 23). The percentage (43%) of diagnoses of HIV infection attributed to injection drug use was largest among American Indian/Alaska Native female adults and adolescents, followed by white (35%), Hispanic/Latino (12%) and black/African American (8%) females (Table 2b). The perinatal and “Other” transmission categories accounted for 1% or less of cases among each racial/ethnic group.

Region

Figure 24. Rates of Diagnoses of HIV Infection among Female Adults and Adolescents, by Region and Race/Ethnicity, 2018—United States

In 2018 in the United States, the South had more diagnoses (3,988) of HIV infection among female adults and adolescents than any other region. The highest rates of diagnoses of HIV infection were among black/African American females in the South (24.6) and in the Northeast (23.5). The highest rate of diagnoses of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latino female adults and adolescents was in the Northeast (8.9). The highest rate of diagnoses of HIV infection among white female adults and adolescents was in the South (2.4). Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Note: See Data Tables, Definitions, and Acronyms for more information on race/ethnicity and U.S. Census Regions.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Prevalence and Race/Ethnicity

At the end of 2018 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, 245,154 female adults and adolescents were living with diagnosed HIV infection. The majority (58%) of female adults and adolescents living with diagnosed HIV infection were black/African American, 20% were Hispanic/Latino, and 16% were white. Females of multiple races accounted for 5% of females living with diagnosed HIV infection and Asians accounted for 1%. American Indians/Alaska Natives and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders each accounted for 1% or less of females living with diagnosed HIV infection (Table 16b).

In 2018 in the United States, the South had more diagnoses (3,988) of HIV infection among female adults and adolescents than any other region (Figure 24). The highest rates of diagnoses of HIV infection among black/African American females were in the South (24.6) and in the Northeast (23.5). The highest rate of diagnoses of HIV infection among Hispanic/Latino female adults and adolescents was in the Northeast (8.9). The highest rate of diagnoses of HIV infection among white female adults and adolescents was in the South (2.4).

Data Tables, Definitions, and Acronyms Used on this Page

Table 2b. Diagnoses of HIV infection, by race/ethnicity and selected characteristics, 2018—United States and 6 dependent areas
American Indian/
Alaska Native
Asian Black/African
American
Hispanic/
Latinoa
Native Hawaiian/
other Pacific
Islander
White Multiple
races
Total
No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No.
Gender
Male 144 760 11,657 8,796 60 8,025 724 30,166
Female 30 108 4,104 1,264 5 1,482 196 7,189
Transgender male-to-femaleb 11 10 272 182 3 50 26 554
Transgender female-to-maleb 0 0 19 11 0 16 1 47
Additional gender identityc 1 2 3 2 0 2 2 12
Age at diagnosis (yr)
<13 0 5 53 9 0 15 5 87
13–14 0 1 12 5 0 2 0 20
15–19 10 23 1,019 381 5 232 49 1,719
20–24 29 125 3,073 1,636 9 1,101 179 6,152
25–29 35 195 3,445 2,176 12 1,686 219 7,768
30–34 32 155 2,158 1,712 18 1,502 146 5,723
35–39 21 98 1,560 1,290 9 1,164 108 4,250
40–44 14 90 1,151 851 2 857 60 3,025
45–49 15 73 1,015 808 3 887 60 2,861
50–54 16 39 964 632 2 822 53 2,528
55–59 8 30 776 378 6 654 25 1,877
60–64 3 22 454 194 1 363 21 1,058
≥65 3 24 375 183 1 290 24 900
Transmission categoryd
     Male adult or adolescente
     Male-to-male sexual contact 117 685 9,444 7,653 53 6,372 610 24,933
     Injection drug use 8 13 436 350 2 591 36 1,434
     Male-to-male sexual contact
and injection drug use
23 12 268 343 4 668 54 1,372
     Heterosexual contactf 8 59 1,739 624 4 431 50 2,916
     Perinatalg 0 1 8 5 0 0 0 14
     Otherh 0 1 10 3 0 7 0 21
     Subtotal 156 771 11,905 8,977 63 8,069 750 30,691
     Female adult or adolescente
     Injection drug use 13 4 313 155 0 529 43 1,058
     Heterosexual contactf 17 98 3,758 1,109 5 956 150 6,092
     Perinatalg 0 1 24 5 0 2 1 33
     Otherh 0 1 2 0 0 4 0 7
     Subtotal 30 104 4,097 1,269 5 1,491 194 7,190
     Child (<13 yrs at diagnosis)
     Perinatal 0 3 42 6 0 9 5 65
     Otherh 0 2 11 3 0 6 0 22
     Subtotal 0 5 53 9 0 15 5 87
Region of residencei
Northeast 7 184 2,214 1,738 4 1,253 182 5,582
Midwest 25 80 2,342 658 2 1,693 137 4,937
South 43 237 10,113 4,270 13 4,346 444 19,466
West 111 375 1,378 3,154 47 2,280 185 7,530
U.S. dependent areas 0 4 8 435 2 3 1 453
Total 186 880 16,055 10,255 68 9,575 949 37,968

Note: Numbers less than 12 should be interpreted with caution.
aHispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
b“Transgender male-to-female” includes individuals who were assigned “male” sex at birth but have ever identified as “female” gender. “Transgender female-to-male” includes individuals who were assigned “female” sex at birth but have ever identified as “male” gender.
cAdditional gender identity examples include “bigender,” “gender queer,” and “two-spirit.”
dData have been statistically adjusted to account for missing transmission category, therefore values may not sum to column subtotals and total.
eData presented based on sex at birth and includes transgender persons.
fHeterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.
gIndividuals were ≥13 years of age at time of diagnosis of HIV infection.
hIncludes hemophilia, blood transfusion, and risk factor not reported or not identified.
iData are based on residence at time of diagnosis of HIV infection.

Table 16b. Adults and adolescents living with diagnosed HIV infection, by year, sex at birth, and selected characteristics, 2014–2018—United States and 6 dependent areas
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
No. Ratea No. Ratea No. Ratea No. Ratea No. Ratea
Male adult or adolescent
    Age at end of year
    13–14 338 7.8 339 7.9 311 7.3 300 7.0 298 6.9
    15–19 3,234 29.6 3,153 28.9 2,975 27.2 2,968 27.2 2,870 26.3
    20–24 25,572 215.4 25,049 212.6 24,441 210.3 23,337 203.8 22,208 196.1
    25–29 49,933 443.0 54,062 469.4 57,313 486.4 59,562 495.9 60,197 495.8
    30–34 56,421 517.0 59,231 539.2 63,048 568.0 66,964 599.1 72,244 639.9
    35–39 60,573 603.5 63,553 619.2 66,416 632.4 69,106 645.5 71,519 656.6
    40–44 78,699 762.9 73,008 721.8 69,801 705.8 69,072 702.2 69,802 704.8
    45–49 113,544 1087.6 108,762 1044.1 103,144 983.9 97,283 928.8 91,489 881.8
    50–54 128,505 1150.2 130,958 1185.2 130,857 1207.5 127,596 1202.3 122,694 1,180.7
    55–59 92,901 881.9 99,975 936.1 106,365 986.3 113,169 1048.7 120,127 1,114.1
    60–64 56,903 635.0 62,380 678.6 68,750 730.9 75,243 780.5 81,375 827.4
    ≥65 47,226 229.3 54,641 256.1 62,351 282.3 70,911 310.5 80,375 340.4
    Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native 1,833 1,923 2,066 2,202 2,330
    Asianb 9,292 10,078 10,855 11,692 12,480
    Black/African American 248,781 257,019 265,011 272,573 280,271
    Hispanic/Latinoc 170,439 177,408 184,644 191,552 198,525
    Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander 585 645 673 716 770
    White 247,151 251,790 255,899 260,005 264,082
    Multiple races 35,210 35,695 36,075 36,223 36,192
    Region of residenced
    Northeast 157,901 687.6 159,774 694.3 163,147 707.6 165,015 714.5 167,050 721.6
    Midwest 86,965 314.2 89,131 321.0 92,052 330.3 94,528 337.8 97,029 345.4
    South 301,247 622.7 312,670 638.2 321,425 648.0 331,976 661.9 342,391 675.4
    West 156,101 506.9 161,785 518.6 167,372 529.6 172,362 539.1 177,146 547.9
    U.S. dependent areas 11,635 738.1 11,751 754.3 11,776 766.5 11,630 768.8 11,582 787.1
    Subtotal 713,849 543.3 735,111 554.7 755,772 565.4 775,511 575.7 795,198 585.8
Female adult or adolescent
    Age at end of year
    13–14 407 9.8 390 9.5 367 9.0 374 9.1 374 9.1
    15–19 2,115 20.3 1,862 17.8 1,695 16.2 1,582 15.1 1,493 14.3
    20–24 6,486 57.4 6,119 54.8 5,699 51.8 5,346 49.2 4,976 46.1
    25–29 11,904 108.9 11,879 106.6 11,799 103.6 11,562 99.9 11,347 97.3
    30–34 18,495 170.7 17,595 161.7 17,124 156.4 16,831 153.4 16,476 149.1
    35–39 25,086 248.6 24,917 242.0 24,684 234.5 24,125 225.2 23,488 215.8
    40–44 31,619 301.7 30,266 294.5 29,451 293.3 28,782 288.3 28,704 286.1
    45–49 36,847 346.0 36,568 344.6 35,840 335.3 35,430 331.6 34,401 324.4
    50–54 37,784 325.5 38,754 337.7 39,207 349.1 38,826 353.4 38,437 358.0
    55–59 28,309 253.2 30,430 269.0 32,348 283.4 34,302 300.5 36,110 316.7
    60–64 16,533 168.7 18,536 184.4 20,767 202.0 22,969 218.1 25,266 235.6
    ≥65 13,631 52.0 15,843 58.7 18,240 65.6 21,044 73.4 24,082 81.6
    Race/ethnicity
    American Indian/Alaska Native 685 716 749 781 799
    Asianb 2,064 2,204 2,364 2,502 2,632
    Black/African American 132,219 134,551 137,014 139,494 141,880
    Hispanic/Latinoc 45,704 46,446 47,144 47,821 48,562
    Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander 129 135 137 141 143
    White 37,043 37,720 38,446 39,121 39,878
    Multiple races 11,151 11,167 11,147 11,094 11,041
    Region of residenced
    Northeast 67,085 272.6 67,361 273.4 68,124 276.3 68,325 276.8 68,614 277.5
    Midwest 22,757 78.8 23,256 80.4 23,997 82.7 24,670 84.8 25,343 86.8
    South 111,320 217.8 113,767 219.8 115,542 220.5 118,068 222.8 120,394 224.6
    West 22,833 72.9 23,602 74.4 24,438 76.1 25,118 77.4 25,865 78.8
    U.S. dependent areas 5,221 299.1 5,173 299.3 5,120 299.4 4,992 296.5 4,938 301.7
    Subtotal 229,216 166.5 233,159 168.0 237,221 169.6 241,173 171.1 245,154 172.7
Total 943,065 350.5 968,270 356.9 992,993 363.0 1,016,684 368.8 1,040,352 374.6

Note: Data for the year 2018 are preliminary and based on deaths reported to CDC as of December 2019.
aRates are per 100,000 population. Rates by race/ethnicity are not provided because U.S. census information is limited for U.S. dependent areas.
bIncludes Asian/Pacific Islander legacy cases (see Technical Notes).
cHispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
dData are based on address of residence at the end of the specified year (i.e., most recent known address).

In the Federal Register [6] for October 30, 1997, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) announced the Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Implementation by January 1, 2003 was mandated. At a minimum, data on the following race categories should be collected:

  • American Indian or Alaska Native
  • Asian
  • black or African American
  • Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
  • white

Additionally, systems must be able to retain information when multiple race categories are reported. In addition to data on race, data on 2 categories of ethnicity should be collected:

  • Hispanic or Latino
  • not Hispanic or Latino

The Asian or Pacific Islander category displayed in annual surveillance reports published prior to the 2007 surveillance report was split into 2 categories: (1) Asian and (2) Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. The Asian category (in tables where footnoted) includes the cases in Asians/Pacific Islanders (referred to as legacy cases) that were reported before the implementation of the new race categories in 2003 (e.g., cases of HIV infection that were diagnosed and reported to CDC before 2003 but that were classified as stage 3 [AIDS] after 2003) and a small percentage of cases that were reported after 2003 but that were reported according to the old race category (Asian/ Pacific Islander). In tables of diagnoses of HIV infection during 2014–2018, the Asian category does not include Asian/Pacific Islander cases because these cases were diagnosed after 2003 and were reported to CDC in accordance with OMB’s Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity [6].

This report also presents data for persons for whom multiple race categories are reported. In this report, persons categorized by race were not Hispanic or Latino. The number of persons reported in each race category may, however, include persons whose ethnicity was not reported.

Transmission category is the term for the classification of cases that summarizes an adult’s or adolescent’s possible HIV risk factors; the summary classification results from selecting, from the presumed hierarchical order of probability, the 1 (single) risk factor most likely to have been responsible for transmission. For surveillance purposes, a diagnosis of HIV infection is counted only once in the hierarchy of transmission categories [7]. Adults or adolescents with more than 1 reported risk factor for HIV infection are classified in the transmission category listed first in the hierarchy. The exception is men who had sexual contact with other men and injected drugs; this group makes up a separate transmission category.

Hierarchical Categories:

  • Male-to-male sexual contact: men who have had sexual contact with men (i.e., homosexual contact) and men who have had sexual contact with both men and women (i.e., bisexual contact)
  • Injection drug use (IDU): persons who have injected non-prescription drugs
  • Male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use (male-to-male sexual contact and IDU): men who have had sexual contact with other men and injected non-prescription drugs
  • Heterosexual contact: persons who have ever had heterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection
  • Perinatal: persons infected through perinatal transmission but aged 13 years and older at time of diagnosis of HIV infection. Prevalence data and tables of death data includes persons infected through perinatal transmission but aged 13 years and older during the specified year or at death.
  • Other: all other transmission categories (e.g., blood transfusion, hemophilia, risk factor not reported or not identified).

Cases of HIV infection reported without a risk factor listed in the hierarchy of transmission categories are classified as “no identified risk (NIR).” Cases classified as NIR include cases that are being followed up by local health department staff; cases in persons whose risk-factor information is missing because they died, declined to be interviewed, or were lost to follow-up; and cases in persons who were interviewed or for whom other follow-up information was available but for whom no risk factor was identified.

Because a substantial proportion of cases of HIV infection are reported to CDC without an identified risk factor, multiple imputation is used to assign a transmission category to these cases [7]. Multiple imputation is a statistical approach in which each missing transmission category is replaced with a set of plausible values that represent the uncertainty about the true, but missing, value [8]. Each resulting data set containing the plausible values is analyzed by using standard procedures, and the results from these analyses are then combined to produce the final results. In tables displaying transmission categories, multiple imputation was used for adults and adolescents, but not for children (because the number of cases in children is small, missing transmission categories were not imputed).

Data by region reflect the address at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection for figures and tables that present number of diagnoses (Figures 17, 19, 24; Tables 1a/b–7a/b). For tables presenting prevalence data (14a/b–17a/b), region is based on most recent known address as of the end of the specified year. For the death tables (10a/b–13a/b), region is based on residence at death. When information on residence at death is not available, the state where a person’s death occurred is used.

Map of US census regions. The 4 regions of residence used in this report are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as follows: •	Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont •	Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin •	South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia (D.C.), Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia •	West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming

The 4 regions of residence and 6 dependent areas used in this report are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as follows:

  • Northeast: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont
  • Midwest: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin
  • South: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia (D.C.), Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia
  • West: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming
  • U.S. dependent areas: American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the Republic of Palau, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

AGI: additional gender identity

AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

FTM: female-to-male

HIV: human immunodeficiency virus

IDU: injection drug use

MSA: metropolitan statistical area

MSM: gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men

MTF: male-to-female

NHSS: National HIV Surveillance System

NIR: no identified risk factor

OI: opportunistic illness

OMB: Office of Management and Budget

PrEP: preexposure prophylaxis

PWID: persons who inject drugs