Birds Kept as Pets

Find information about poultry (chickens, turkeys, etc.) on the backyard poultry page.

Many wild birds can have the same diseases as pet birds, but for more information about wild birds, visit the wildlife page.

Colorful Jenday Conure parrot pet in cage

Feathered pets like parrots can be fascinating additions to the family. Recent estimates say that over 5 million households in the United States have pet birds. Bird owners should be aware that although their pets might be highly intelligent and fun companions, they can sometimes carry germs that can make people sick.

Although rare, germs from birds can cause a variety of illnesses in people, ranging from minor skin infections to serious illnesses. One of the best ways you can protect yourself from getting sick is to thoroughly wash your hands with running water and soap after you touch birds, their droppings, or items in their cages.

By providing your pet with routine veterinary care and following the Healthy People tips, you are less likely to get sick from touching or owning a pet bird.

Read below about diseases that can be spread by pet birds. These diseases can be carried by any type of pet bird you have. Visit the Healthy People section to learn more about staying healthy around pet birds.

Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungus found in the environment, particularly in soil, on decaying wood, in tree hollows, or in bird droppings.

How it spreads: People can get cryptococcosis by breathing in the microscopic fungus from the environment.

Who is at risk: Cryptococcosis is extremely rare in healthy people. It most often affects people with weakened immune systems.

Signs in birds: It is rare to see signs in birds.

Symptoms in people: Symptoms can resemble pneumonia, including cough, shortness of breath, and fever. Cryptococcal meningitis can cause headache, fever, and neck pain.

Histoplasmosis is an infection caused by fungus found in the environment, particularly in soil that contains large amounts of bird and bat droppings.

How it spreads: People can get histoplasmosis by breathing in the microscopic fungus from the environment.

Who is at risk: Anyone can get histoplasmosis, but those most at risk for serious infection include adults over 65 years old, infants, and people with weakened immune systems.

Signs in birds: Birds do not get sick from histoplasmosis.

Symptoms in people: Most people don’t get sick from histoplasmosis. People who do get sick from histoplasmosis can have pneumonia-like symptoms that usually appear within 3-17 days of exposure. Symptoms include fever, cough, and fatigue.

Psittacosis is a disease caused by bacteria (Chylamydia psittaci) spread through the droppings and respiratory secretions of infected birds. People most commonly get psittacosis after exposure to pet birds, like parrots and cockatiels, and poultry, like turkeys or ducks. When birds are infected, veterinarians call the disease avian chlamydiosis.

How it spreads: People most commonly get psittacosis by breathing in dust from droppings or respiratory secretions of infected birds. Less commonly, birds infect people through bites and beak-to-mouth contact.

Who is at risk: Anyone who is exposed to the bacteria can get psittacosis, but it is more commonly reported among adults. People who have contact with birds (such as bird owners and those who work with birds) are at increased risk.

Signs in birds: Infected birds may or may not show symptoms. If they do have symptoms, they can include poor appetite, discharge from the eyes or nose, diarrhea or loose droppings, green urates (the white part of their droppings), or breathing difficulty, among others.

Symptoms in people: People who get sick with psittacosis might have fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, difficulty breathing, and a dry cough. Symptoms usually start 5-14 days after exposure. Less commonly, people report symptoms that begin after 14 days.

How to stay healthy around pet birds

Before buying or adopting a pet bird, make sure a bird is the right type of pet for your family. Know that many pet birds have a very long life span. Some parrots can live for 20 years or longer. Birds require special care and can sometimes carry germs that can make people sick. Because of this, certain types of birds might not be suitable for young children or people with weakened immune systems living in the household.

Person washing their hands with soap and water

Wash your hands

  • Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water
    • After handling birds, their toys, food and water dishes, or other equipment
    • After cleaning bird cages, habitats, or perches
    • Before you eat, drink, or smoke
  • Adults should supervise hand washing for young children.
  • Use hand sanitizer if soap and water are not readily available. Be sure to have hand sanitizer readily available near the bird’s enclosure to encourage guests and children to use hand sanitizer after handling birds.

Safely clean your pet bird’s cages and equipment

  • When cleaning cages, do not pick up droppings with your bare hands. Always wash your hands thoroughly right after cleaning up or handling your bird.
  • Don’t clean any equipment or materials in the kitchen sink. This includes cages and food and water containers. Bacteria and other germs can cross-contaminate your food preparation areas.
  • Wash your hands right after handling your bird or any of its supplies.

Prevent bird bites and scratches

Young budgie bird bites woman's hand

Pet birds do not have teeth, but their beaks can still cause a lot of damage if they bite or attempt to bite you. Birds can also have very sharp nails and talons. Germs can spread from bird bites and scratches, even when the wound does not seem deep or serious. Always closely supervise children around birds.  If a bird scratches or bites you, you should:

  • Wash the wounds with soap and water immediately.
  • Seek medical attention if:
    • The bird appears sick,
    • The wound is serious (uncontrolled bleeding, loss of function, extreme pain, muscle or bone exposure) or you think you need stitches,
    • The wound becomes red, painful, warm, or swollen, or
    • It has been more than 5 years since you got your last tetanus shot.

If you seek medical attention, make sure to tell your doctor a bird bit or scratched you.

How to keep pet birds healthy

Keeping your pet bird healthy helps to keep you and your family healthy. To learn how to stay healthy around pet birds, visit the Healthy People section.

A parakeet bird

Before choosing a pet bird

  • Check your state, local, and property laws before adopting or purchasing a pet bird. Many governments have ordinances against certain pets because of noise, size, or public health risk.
  • Identify a local veterinarian who has experience with pet birds (an avian veterinarian) to help you keep your bird healthy.
  • Learn about the different types of birds and their personalities and attention needs before you bring one home. Birds are very intelligent and social animals that require a lot of attention. Also learn about the life span for the type of bird you are interested in as many birds can live for 20 years or more.
  • Research how to properly care for your bird before purchase. Ask your veterinarian about the proper food, care, and enclosure or environment that is best for the bird you are selecting.
  • Select a location for your bird’s cage, perch, or enclosure. Pet birds need to be housed in a warm, draft-free location that has adequate lighting and is close to activity in the household.
Alert cockatoo eating

How to choose a pet bird

When choosing a pet bird, you should:

  • Match a bird’s attitude, temperament, size, activity level, and life span with your family, your home, and the amount of time you have to spend with your pet.
  • Pick birds that are bright, alert, and active. Birds should have smooth, sleek, and soft feathers that are free of debris or droppings. Birds who seem depressed, aren’t moving around very much, or look dirty may be ill.
  • Learn the signs of illness in a bird, which can include appearing sluggish or depressed, having ruffled feathers or areas of feather loss, abnormal breathing, and fluid running from its eyes or nose.
  • When bringing new birds to a household that already has pet birds, be sure to keep the new birds separated for at least 30 days before introducing them to your existing birds. This will help prevent the new birds from passing disease to your existing animals. During this period of separation:
    • Wash your hands with soap and water before working with each group of birds.
    • Keep water and food dishes, toys, and other cage/perch equipment separate and clean.
  • Within a few days after you buy or adopt your bird, take it to a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds (avian veterinarians) for a health visit and get advice on caring for your new pet. Return to the veterinarian for checkups and beak, nail, or wing trimmings, as recommended.
Importing pet birds into the United States

USDA regulates the importation of pet birds. Because of the risk of avian influenza (bird flu), USDA restricts the importation of pet birds from certain countries and enfosrces a 30-day quarantine for all imported birds except those that come from Canada. People interested in importing pet birds should visit the USDA non-US Origin Pet Bird Importation website.

Large bird enclosure for birds to fly

How to house pet birds

  • Provide a safe, sturdy enclosure or cage for your bird. Keep pet birds from interacting with all wild animals and insects such as mosquitoes. These animals and insects can carry diseases that can be spread to your pet birds.
  • Do not allow your birds to fly or roam around the house without supervision. They could get accidentally trapped or hurt.
  • Avoid housing pet birds in areas where food or drink is prepared, served, or stored, such as kitchens or dining rooms.
  • Closely supervise any interaction of your birds with children or other pets to reduce the chance of injuries.

Clean and disinfect pet bird cages and equipment

  • Keep bird cages, enclosures, and perches clean to prevent the build-up of droppings.
  • Keep birds and their equipment out of kitchens and other areas where food is prepared, served, served, or consumed. Never use food preparation areas to clean habitats and supplies. Clean these items outside of the home when possible.
  • If you clean habitats and supplies indoors, use a laundry sink or bathtub, and thoroughly clean and disinfect the area right afterward.

Learn how to stay healthy while cleaning your bird’s cage.

Monitor your pet bird’s health

  • Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds (avian veterinarian) for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases.
  • Sick birds may become thin, depressed or sluggish, have diarrhea, have fluid running from their eyes, or lose feathers. But birds can also carry germs that might make people sick without appearing sick at all.
  • If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption:
    • Contact your veterinarian.
    • Inform the store, breeder, or adoption organization about the bird’s illness or death.
    • Consider waiting before you purchase or adopt another pet to give yourself time to clean any germs out of the cage or perch and to clean bird equipment.
    • Do not reuse the cage, enclosure, perch, or equipment until it has been properly cleaned and disinfected.

Selecting and caring for a pet bird

Importing pet birds

Illnesses associated with pet birds

Staying healthy around pet birds

Visit the Healthy People section for information about staying healthy around pet birds.

Guidance and recommendations